In at Chickamauga, three of every ten men of the Fortyfourth who went into battle became casualties, including Andrew. Thanks to Silas, he avoided an amputation. At this point Mr. This closed the argument. At the time, Andrew was absent from his regiment, likely at home recuperating from his Chickamauga wound. Benjamin and his fellow horse soldiers went up against Union Maj.
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William T. A portion of the Ninth, including Benjamin, as their final assignment, formed part of a large escort for Jefferson Davis when the Confederate president fled Virginia after Richmond fell. On May 4, , near Washington, Georgia, Davis separated from his escort and rode off with a much smaller force in an effort to move faster and attract less notice as federal patrols infiltrated the area.
Benjamin was among those who were left behind. Benjamin surrendered on May Silas was also there. Union troops captured President Davis at nearby Irwinsville, Georgia, the same day. Silas and Lucy had a total of twelve children, five of whom lived to maturity. Silas established himself as a talented carpenter in the town of West Point, Mississippi.
He taught the trade to his sons—there were at least four—and all of them worked together. They later replaced it with a wood-frame church. Silas remained active as a Baptist and also as a Mason. He lived within a few miles of Andrew and Benjamin, who raised families and prospered as farmers. Benjamin died in Silas died ten years later at age eighty-two in September Andrew survived Silas by only eight months; he died in May In , the Sons of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy conducted a ceremony at the 80 gravesite of Silas in recognition of his Civil War service.
An iron cross and flag were placed next to his monument. This event prompted mixed reactions from Chandlers, black and white. He was dressed up like a Confederate soldier for reasons that may never be known. Bobbie Chandler accepts the role of his great-grandfather.
Ronald S. Well-clad soldiers were shown clustered around wood fires in cosy log huts with tent roofs and barrel chimneys, sharing food parcels from home. March returns from the front to enjoy turkey with his girls. Overall, concluded Meg, had been a rather pleasant year. Actually, it had been bloody, and war never took a holiday. On both sides, years ended with anxiety for those engaged in such savage contests as Fredericksburg, Murfreesboro, Spring Hill, and Franklin, where hogs and scavenger birds feasted on corpses.
Holidays bred homesickness among soldiers. Demoralization plus malnutrition produced dysentery, morphing often into nostalgia, a debilitating psychosomatic ailment, victims dying miserably in field hospitals. Some men ran for home and, when caught, were executed. Winter quarters were rarely idyllic. Many men had no shelter, sleeping on bare ground, exposed to the elements.
If fortunate enough to share a tent, soldiers were nauseated by foul smells as bad food churned through bowels.
Although rosy images showed families enjoying Christmas Crackers imported from England that, when exploded, threw out party favors , the only crackers most troops saw were hardtack biscuits often moldy and home to weevils , along with dried beans. Intermittent food parcels arrived spoiled. Sam Watkins, 1st Tennessee C. Joseph E. Crowell pulled picket duty on Christmas Eve, lonely and spooked by noises in the night. Returning to camp, he saw comrades lying feet to the fire, like spokes of a wheel. The warmth reached their legs, but shoulders and heads were buried in snow.
Christmas breakfast was hardtack and coffee, followed by dinner comprising desiccated vegetables, rehydrated by boiling in a tomato can. They swelled out of the pot, tasting like rags. The boys completed the festivities by boiling lice out of clothing seams, their tenting ground, used previously by many other soldiers, teeming with insects. Finally, snow turned to rain that, mixing with Virginia clay, formed mud the consistency of bread dough that glued to the feet in sticky strings.
Numerous civilians, especially Confederates, fared no better, barely subsisting, and struggling with grief. Mary Boykin Chesnut, seemingly fortunate to be the wife of a Confederate politician, endured a miserable dinner at the elite Preston family home in Richmond on Christmas Eve, Mary suffered nightmares, waking screaming after seeing the terrible injuries, including those of General John Bell Hood, who sat during dinner morosely staring into the fire, reliving ghastly fights. Filed under American History , Civil War.
On Saturday, October 11th, from —3. Details of the event are available here from the Friends of Montezuma Wetlands Complex. Book Signing Michael C. Admission: Free; visit the festival for more information. A panel discussionn of the book features S. Admission: Free; R. Read more about this program on the Ivy event calendar. He bought it during the Depression with money saved from ever-declining sales at his art supplies store in Denver.
My grandmother never quite forgave him for the extravagance. Twenty-year-old Private Samuel V. When Robert J. Brugger, senior acquisitions editor for Johns Hopkins University Press, suggested a book summarizing the role of African American soldiers, or U. Colored Troops, as they became officially known, I saw an opportunity to delve into a Civil War topic of which I knew very little. Fortunately, I soon discovered that much had been written on the subject, and learned that John David Smith, a nationally recognized expert on the subject, was willing to lend his expertise.
Others were kidnapped into service by zealous recruiters with quotas to fill. Still others found their way to Union camps with the help of abolitionists and the Underground Railway. Once President Lincoln issued his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, , authorizing African Americans to join the Union Army, army recruiters took over the recruitment process. How this transformation was accomplished is one of the most important pieces of the story. African Americans proved their mettle in over forty major engagements even though they knew that if captured they, and their white officers—all of whom Jefferson Davis refused to consider as prisoners of war—faced almost certain execution.
Sadly, after successfully facing down one deterrent after another to their service and helping Lincoln to save the Union, the promise of freedom in exchange for service profusely offered by recruiters and officers alike to the , African Americans in blue was short lived. For a few years after the war ended African Americans held elected office and enjoyed other rights long denied them. African Americans who did not serve, as well as those who did, passed away under his reign.
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Lee at Gettysburg and the fall of Vicksburg to Ulysses S. Grant in early July are often seen as marking the high tide of the Confederacy.
The strategy was to push the Confederate frontier to the Mason-Dixon Line, gaining the rich resources of the Border States and providing a buffer zone for the lower South. It was expected that the people of the Border States would flock to the rebel flag, but the actual reception was lukewarm, a poor omen for the coming operations.
The offensives in the west failed when Confederate forces were turned back at Louisville, Kentucky, and then Cincinnati, Ohio, in September, before being mauled at Perryville, Kentucky, on October 8. In the east, Lee came up from Virginia into Maryland in early September, and was brought to a standstill on the 17th by General George B.
McClellan in fighting along Antietam Creek outside the small town of Sharpsburg, thirteen miles south of Hagerstown. This battle was one of the bloodiest in American history, illustrating the hell of Civil War combat and darkening the lives of many survivors. Things went wrong for the rebels from the beginning. The Confederate supply system was already failing. The men lacked shoes, decent uniforms, and adequate provisions, leading many to drop out of the marching ranks.
Dust hovered in thick clouds over the hot, dry summer roads. An angry staff officer, Alexander Haskell, jumped from his horse to berate a straggler huddled in a fence corner. Lee intended to live off the land, but he seemingly mistimed his move, as crops were still green.
One gaunt and smelly rebel, begging food from Maryland housewife Mary B.
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Soldiers on both sides never got to the battlefield but dropped out on the march, preying on civilians for what they needed. The inhabitants were also stripped of food, water, fences, and barn planks for firewood by soldiers who remained in the ranks and were sent on authorized foraging details by their officers.
Anticipating battle induced chronic stress. In close combat, men faced smoothbore Napoleon cannons double-shotted with canister, metal cylinders, or bags filled with iron balls that, on discharge, spread out like a giant shotgun blast. Hailstorms of minnie balls, fired from Springfield and Enfield rifled muskets, produced massive carnage. The effect can be gauged from the damage inflicted on General John B. Gordon, defending a section of the Sunken Lane at the heart of the rebel position. Gordon was shot through the right calf and then higher up the same leg.
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A further bullet tore up the tendons of his left arm, followed by a ball that ripped through his shoulder. Still at his post, the general took a fifth round, to the head, and fell with his face in his hat, almost drowning in his own blood, had it not run out through the bullet holes in the cloth.
Men said it seemed the day would never end and that the sun stood still in the sky. The wounded suffered the worst. And am afraid shall be again as shells fly past me every few seconds. But the consequences of slaughter were not ended.
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Around the small town of several hundred inhabitants lay 6, dead or dying, alongside 17, wounded four times the number that fell on D-Day in June, Arrangements for retrieval were inadequate to the task. Bodies bloated and stank; wild hogs fed on the dead and near-dead. In desperation, burial parties threw corpses in shallow mass graves or stuffed them under porches and in compost piles.
The remains of fifty-eight rebels were found in one well.
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