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This figure varies, depending upon the creature's range and the diet of the maturing turtle", "green"]. They have a decentralized nervous system with no cerebral cortex, which in humans is where a reaction to painful stimuli proceeds", "lobsters"]. A stride is measured as the distance between successive imprints of the same paw", "cheetah"]. A human would die of heat shock after sweating away only 12 percent of body weight", "camel"].

It needs its tail for pushing off", "kangaroo"]. Vibrissae are attached to muscles and are supplied with blood and nerves. Abrasion patterns created by their tusks show that they are dragged through the sediment, but are not used to dig up prey", "walrus"]. Every part of its field of vision, however, is in perfect focus, not just straight ahead, as with humans", "squirrel"]. A human being's jaws exert a force of only 40 to 80 pounds", "crocodile"].

Two grown men are incapable of prying it up", "abalone"]. Since most birds do not have teeth, a bird routinely swallows small pebbles and gravel. The arch is able to get so high because the cat's spine contains nearly 60 vertebrae which fit loosely together. What class does it belong to", "Reptilia"]. Males typically feed with their head and neck at full vertical stretch, often with their tongues extended to reach the shoots on the underside of the mature tree canopy.

It is more than two times as long and four times as heavy as a shoe worn by a riding horse", "22"]. What class does it belong to", "mammalia"]. Using two oversized front teeth, it nibbles on seagrass and scrapes algae. Another set of teeth in its throat grinds up the coral it ingests", "parrot fish"]. A female pig is a sow.

Breeders spread feed underfoot, hoping the little ones will peck at it and get the idea. Turkeys tend to look up with their mouths open during rainstorms. Parents and the young raised during the summer establish strong family bonds and do not break up for about a year. In the fall, geese migrate in flocks that contain other family units, and each family stays together on the wintering grounds", "breeding"]. However, its tongue is extremely sensitive to sound vibrations. By constantly flicking its tongue, the snake picks up these sound waves. The animal does not die. A tiger's forefeet have five toes and the hind feet have four toes.

All toes have claws. The claws are 80 to mm in length", "pug marks"]. Called the Bengali Mach-Bagral, nature gave this cat extra-long claws, which it uses like fishhooks. They are about. For safety, they may run past and sweep around from the side", "squirrels"]. The choice of name rests almost altogether on custom and geography, although the smaller of the species is, more often than not, called a dove", "pigeons"].

They leave the meat for cubs and scavengers. They can hear notes only up to 4, vibrations a second", "old people"]. Beavers eat only plants. They eat poplar trees, carrots, cattail, mushrooms, potatoes, berries, water plants, swamp wood, and fruit. Typically, the large, gentle creatures feed no deeper than about ten feet below the surface of the water", "swimmers"].

Its intestinal tract is 45 feet long", "ostrich"]. Horns grow throughout an animal's life and are found on both the male and female of a species. It is in the northern reaches of the world that more summer food for birds is available as a result of the longer days", "tropics"]. Its toxin is more potent than cobra venom and can kill a person in minutes", "box jelly"]. If inactive for more than a few hours, the animal will lose enough body heat to freeze to death", "shrew"].

In Ontario, Canada, instruments couldn't locate where natural gas was escaping from a pipeline buried 18 feet underground. The dogs worked in sub-zero temperatures and covered nearly miles of frozen ground, ultimately finding more than gas leaks", "german shepherds"]. When caged by themselves and neglected for long periods of time, these intelligent, sociable birds can easily become mentally ill.

Many inflict wounds upon themselves, develop strange tics, and rip out their own feathers. The birds need constant interaction, affection, and mental stimulation; some bird authorities have determined that some parrot breeds have the mental abilities of a 5-year-old human child. Should a neglected parrot go mad, there is little that can be done to restore it to normalcy. Long-legged giraffes walk with the limbs on one side of the body lifted at the same time.

When cats scratch furniture, it isn't an act of malice. They are actually tearing off the ragged edges of the sheaths of their talons to expose the new sharp ones beneath", "claws"]. These muscles rotate degrees, so the cat can hear in all directions without moving its head", "thirty"].

They can see a 1 mm long insect from a treetop 18 meters above ground", "visual"]. Many naturalists have concluded that a peanut diet is harmful to squirrels: it seems to result in a weakening of eyesight and a thinning of the animal's pelt", "squirrels"]. An appointed sentry, spotting a predator, will give a distinctive warning cry, which instantly sends all others grabbing up babies and scurrying to the safety of their burrows. An all-clear call later announces that danger is passed.

Often, when a calf is born, the farmer will make it swallow a magnet. This is to attract the various nails, staples, bits of wire, and so on, that the cow may ingest while grazing. If one is caught in a trap, the other will bring small game for it to eat; it will soak itself in a river to allow its thirsty mate to chew on its damp fur for water. What do donkeys do", "bray"]. Among Asian elephants, only the males have tusks. The population of grasshoppers of the world tends to rise and fall rhythmically in 9.

Young birds need even more. They bear young, just as mammals do", "lay eggs"]. Each is connected with the main tunnel and the nesting chamber where the animal hibernates for the winter. A group of kangaroos is called a mob. A group of whales is called a pod. A group of geese is called a gaggle. A group of owls is called a parliament. A group of ravens is an unkindness. A group of crows is a murder. A group of bears is called a sleuth. Twelve or more cows is called a flink", "blessing"].

  1. The Zombie Chapters Volume I.
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They were given the honor of being mummified when they died", "baboons"]. They wait in areas where ants are working and when one passes by, they flick out their tongue, catch their prey, and swallow without chewing. Apparently their digestive tract is immune to bites and stings", "lizards"]. Miniatures start 9 inches shorter, and prices go up as size goes down", "shetland"].

However, waking a sleeping bear for the purpose of taking a photograph is prohibited", "bears"]. Like their relatives the pocket mice, they carry their own water source within them, producing fluids from the food they eat and the air they breathe", "water"]. A llama greeting is marked by softly blowing on each other. Tourists can cuddle one of koalas, hand feed kangaroos and emus, and see a large variety of Australian native wildlife in the acre sanctuary, such as wombats, Tasmanian devils, and dingoes. In Queensland, koalas can only be cuddled for less than 30 minutes per day.

They must also get every fourth day off. The antlers often weigh 60 pounds", "moose"]. Surprisingly, when leaving their nests for the first time, chicks are very rarely hurt due to falling to the ground", "nests"]. A goose's wings churn the air and leave an air current behind. In the flying wedge, each bird is in position to get a lift from the current left by the bird ahead. It is easier going for all, except the leader. If an infant tries to suckle above ground, the mother will slap it", "underground"].

It can be pink, blue, purple, gray, or even green. Nor is it produced only by the pearl oyster. The abalone and the pearl mussel both have shells that are lined with fine-quality mother-of-pearl", "white"]. The hardy animals can endure winter temperatures as low as minus 50 degrees F, and powerful winds up to miles per hour", "goats"]. American wild dog", "coyote"]. Many are predators which eat earthworms, etc. Snap , de rien, je vous en prie. It is designed for college and secondary school Chinese language learners from beginning to advanced levels including AP Chinese students , offering them a new opportunity to read for pleasure and simultaneously developing real fluency, building confidence, and increasing motivation for Chinese learning.

Each title comes with an audio CD containing recordings of the text. In simplified characters, with pinyin and English in vocabulary lists. There are also short exercises and answer keys at the end of each book. He searched for the pirates for a long time, without success. Little does she realize that she is on the brink of death….

Sans titre. Secrets of a Computer Company. Boris Stol. More of those pleaaaase!. Fauve Rouget replied to Boris. Boris , unfortunately, I do not have for the moment. Containing more than 1, Chinese words and sentence patterns, this book is suitable for elementary Chinese learners. The learning tips, in the bottom left-hand corner of each unit, can help you learn how to apply the words in sentences.

It comes with an audio CD which is recorded by a native Chinese speaker. The book includes more than objects, each page includes Simplified Chinese , English and Pinyin. The family is not a "natural" phenomenon but an institution with a dynamic history stretching 10, years into the past. Mary Jo Maynes and Ann Waltner tell the story of this fundamental unit from the beginnings of domestication and human settlement. They consider the codification of rules governing marriage in societies around the ancient world, the changing conceptions of family wrought by the heightened pace of colonialism and globalization in the modern world, and how state policies shape families today.

The authors illustrate ways in which differences in gender and generation have affected family relations over the millennia. Cooperation between family members-by birth or marriage-has driven expansions of power and fusions of culture in times and places as different as ancient Mesopotamia, where kings' daughters became priestesses who mediated among the various cultures and religions of their fathers' kingdom, and sixteenth-century Mexico, in which alliances between Spanish men and indigenous women variously allowed for consolidation of colonial power or empowered resistance to colonial rule.

But family discord has also driven - and been driven by - historical events such as China's May Fourth Movement, in which young people seeking an end to patriarchal authority were key participants. Maynes's and Waltner's view of the family as a force of history brings to light processes of human development and patterns of social life and allows for new insights into the human past and present. Situated at the crossroads between East and West, it has been marked by its encounters with other cultures and has influenced them with its own.

In this book , Richard Foltz traces the spread of Iranian culture among diverse populations ranging from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, and along the Silk Roads as far as China, from prehistoric times up to the present day. Lack of political freedoms has continued to frustrate many Iranians, however, and the country is often seen as an international pariah in the West.

Iran today is rarely treated well in Western news headlines, despite remarkable achievements by individual Iranians in a wide range of fields. Nam C. Kim The Origins of Ancient Vietnam The Origins of Ancient Vietnam explores the origins of civilization in the Red River Delta of Vietnam and how related studies can inform our understanding of ancient societies, generally, and the foundations of Vietnamese culture, specifically.

However, there are ongoing debates about the origins of the site, the validity of the literary accounts, and the link between the prehistoric past and later Vietnamese societies. Recent decades of archaeology in the region have provided new perspectives for examining these issues. The material record reveals indigenous trajectories of cultural change throughout the prehistoric period, culminating in the emergence of a politically sophisticated society. Specifically, new data indicate the founding of Co Loa by an ancient state, centuries before the Han arrival.

In The Origins of Ancient Vietnam, Nam Kim synthesizes the archaeological evidence for this momentous development, placing Co Loa within a wider, global setting of emergent cities, states, and civilizations. Ahmed Ragab The Medieval Islamic Hospital: Medicine, Religion, and Charity The first monograph on the history of Islamic hospitals, this volume focuses on the under-examined Egyptian and Levantine institutions of the twelfth to fourteenth centuries.

By the twelfth century, hospitals serving the sick and the poor could be found in nearly every Islamic city. Following the paths of patients inside hospital wards, he investigates who they were and what kinds of experiences they had. The Medieval Islamic Hospital explores the medical networks surrounding early hospitals and sheds light on the particular brand of practice-oriented medicine they helped to develop.

Providing a detailed picture of the effect of religion on medieval medicine, it will be essential reading for those interested in history of medicine, history of Islamic sciences, or history of the Mediterranean. Ivan Biliarsky Word and Power in Mediaeval Bulgaria East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, The law is a cultural phenomenon that impacts on the whole normative system of a civilisation and finally its core values.

It is part of and simultaneously protector of these values. As such the law is in close relation with identity and with one of its main transmitters - the language. Every civilisation has a law code that should be common to all its parts and members and should be based on a common lexis. This book presents a case study in the legal terminology of mediaeval Bulgaria displayed against the broader background of the Byzantine civilisation to which the country belonged.

It is accompanied by a glossary of the juridical lexis that is not only an example but forms the very basis of the researc project. Evgenia Sirotkina. Fauve Rouget replied to Evgenia. Narrated in Mandarin Chinese , this story celebrates the seasons and months of the year. Follow along as you enjoy a visit to the beach, a zoo, a farm, a museum, and learn about holidays. Judy R Mahoney. Teach Me More Chinese Mandarin. Sybil Howlett. Fauve Rouget replied to Sybil. Sybil , you are welcome. The answer is more simple than you think. What does that mean for you? Picking up a new language does not require a laborious study of grammar formulas and verb conjugations.

This book helps you achieve just that. In addition to language instruction, this book takes a step further to distinguish between "local talk" from mere dictionary words. It provides a dazzling mass of information for those intrigued by the many roles numbers play in folklore and popular culture, in music and poetry, and in the many religions, cultures, and belief systems of our world.

The stories unfold from millions to zero: from the number of the beast to the seven deadly sins; from the twelve signs of the zodiac to the four suits of a deck of cards. Along the way, author Barnaby Rogerson will show you why Genghis Khan built a city of towers, how Dante forged his Divine Comedy on the number eleven, and why thirteen is so unlucky in the West whereas fourteen is the number to avoid in China.

Accidental Poetry: Improve Your English Through Creative Writing offers a proven method that has allowed new speakers of English throughout the world to boost their language ability. It will provide for you, too, the richly satisfying experience of writing with confidence as you activate the senses, recall childhood experiences, and express the many shades of your emotions.

What a fun and gratifying way to improve your English skills! The method in this book makes it fun, easy, fast, and painless to tame tough SAT vocabulary. Studies show that most of us are visual learners, so the trick to remember an abstract concept is to turn it into a picture. That can take time and effort. This book does all of the work for you.

It is the academic equivalent of steroids for an athlete. Read it and gain a remarkable edge over other students. Read it and dramatically raise your verbal SAT score. Read it and develop a powerful vocabulary which is the most accurate indicator of potential academic success. Read it and the mild-mannered, offbeat, super hero Werdnerd will take you on a tour through zany illustrations that will magically stick in your memory like glue. You see it.

You get it. Suzanne I. Barchers Multicultural Folktales: Readers Theatre for Elementary Students Introduce your students to other countries and cultures through the traditional folk and fairy tales in these engaging readers theatre scripts. Representing more than 30 countries and regions, the 40 reproducible scripts are accompanied by presentation suggestions and recommendations for props and delivery. Each has been assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Scale and is grouped for grades one through five. Valuable as supplements to multicultural units, these scripts actively involve students in the subject, and they promote oral reading and presentation skills.

Accidental Poetry. Visualize Your Vocab. This study first uncovers the factors that explain how, and why, China developed into a bureaucratic empire under the Qin dynasty in BCE. It then examines the political system that crystallized during the Western Han dynasty, a system that drew on China's philosophical traditions of Confucianism and Legalism. Despite great changes in China's demography, religion, technology, and socioeconomic structures, this Confucian-Legalist political system survived for over two millennia. Yet, it was precisely because of the system's resilience that China, for better or worse, did not develop industrial capitalism as Western Europe did, notwithstanding China's economic prosperity and technological sophistication beginning with the Northern Song dynasty.

In examining the nature of this political system, Zhao offers a new way of viewing Chinese history, one that emphasizes the importance of structural forces and social mechanisms in shaping historical dynamics. As a work of historical sociology, The Confucian-Legalist State aims to show how the patterns of Chinese history were not shaped by any single force, but instead by meaningful activities of social actors which were greatly constrained by, and at the same time reproduced and modified, the constellations of political, economic, military, and ideological forces.

This book thus offers a startling new understanding of long-term patterns of Chinese history, one that should trigger debates for years to come among historians, political scientists, and sociologists. This haunting stitched account of the battle that redrew the map of medieval Europe has inspired dreams of theft, waves of nationalism, visions of limitless power, and esthetic rapture.

In his fascinating new book , Yale professor R. Howard Bloch reveals the history, the hidden meaning, the deep beauty, and the enduring allure of this astonishing piece of cloth. Bloch opens with a gripping account of the event that inspired the Tapestry: the swift, bloody Battle of Hastings, in which the Norman bastard William defeated the Anglo-Saxon king, Harold, and laid claim to England under his new title, William the Conqueror. But to truly understand the connection between battle and embroidery, one must retrace the web of international intrigue and scandal that climaxed at Hastings.

Bloch demonstrates how, with astonishing intimacy and immediacy, the artisans who fashioned this work of textile art brought to life a moment that changed the course of British culture and history. Every age has cherished the Tapestry for different reasons and read new meaning into its enigmatic words and images.

As the Nazis tightened their grip on Europe, Hitler sent a team to France to study the Tapestry, decode its Nordic elements, and, at the end of the war, with Paris under siege, bring the precious cloth to Berlin. And yet, more than a work of art, the Tapestry served as the suture that bound up the wounds of Enhanced by a stunning full-color insert that includes reproductions of the complete Tapestry, A Needle in the Right Hand of God will stand with The Professor and the Madman and How the Irish Saved Civilization as a triumph of popular history.

The editor who added the date to the book s of Haggai and Zechariah thought so, and the author of Ezra then relied on his dates when writing his account of the rebuilding process. The genealogical information contained in the book of Nehemiah, however, suggests otherwise; it indicates that Zerubbabel and Nehemiah were either contemporaries, or a generation apart in age, not some 65 years apart.

Thus, either Zerubabbel and the temple rebuilding needs to be moved to the reign of Artaxerxes I, or Nehemiah and the rebuilding of the city walls needs to be moved to the reign of Darius I. In this ground-breaking volume, the argument is made that the temple was built during the reign of Artaxerxes I.

The editor of Haggai and Zechariah mistakenly set the event under Darius I because he was influenced by both a desire to show the fulfillment of inherited prophecy and by Darius' widely circulated autobiography of his rise to power. In light of the settlement patterns in Yehud during the Persian period, it is proposed that Artaxerxes I instituted a master plan to incorporate Yehud into the Persian road, postal, and military systems. The rebuilding of the temple was a minor part of the larger plan that provided soldiers stationed in the fortress in Jerusalem and civilians living in the new provincial seat with a place to worship their native god while also providing a place to store taxes and monies collected on behalf of the Persian administration.

Now, in this enthralling new book , he tells the story of objects that are, to many, the pinnacle of the jeweler's art: the Faberge imperial eggs. The Easter presents that Russia's last two czars gave to their czarinas have become synonymous with privilege, beauty, and an almost provocative uselessness.

They are perhaps the most redolent symbols of the old empire's phenomenal craftsmanship, of the decadence of its court, and of the upheavals that brought about its inevitable downfall. Faberge's Eggs is the first book to recount the remarkable story of these masterpieces, taking us from the circumstances that inspired each egg's design, through their disappearance in the trauma of revolution, to their eventual reemergence in the global marketplace. It was the surprises hidden inside that made it special: a diamond miniature of the Imperial crown and a ruby pendant.

This gift began a tradition that would last for more than three decades: lavishly extravagant eggs commemorating public events that, in retrospect, seem little more than staging posts on the march to revolution. Above all, the eggs illustrate the attitudes that would ultimately lead to the downfall of the Romanovs: their apparent indifference to the poverty that choked their country, their preference for style over substance, and, during the reign of Nicholas II, their all-consuming concern with the health of the czarevitch Alexis, the sickly heir to the throne--a preoccupation that would propel them toward Rasputin and the doom of the dynasty.

More than a superb new account of a classic tragedy, Faberge's Eggs illuminates some fascinating aspects of twentieth-century history. The eggs' amazing journey from revolutionary Russia features a cast of characters including embattled Bolsheviks, acquisitive British royals, eccentric artifact salesmen, and such famous business and society figures as Arm and Hammer, Marjorie Merriweather Post, and Malcolm Forbes.

Finally, Toby Faber tantalizingly suggests that some of the eggs long thought lost may eventually emerge. Darting from the palaces of a besieged Russia to the showcases of New York's modern mega-wealthy, Faberge's Eggs weaves a story unparalleled in its drama and extravagance. Roman culture as we have seen it with our own eyes, Emanuel Mayer boldly argues, turns out to be distinctly middle class and requires a radically new framework of analysis.

Starting in the first century bce, ancient communities, largely shaped by farmers living within city walls, were transformed into vibrant urban centers where wealth could be quickly acquired through commercial success. From bce to ce, the archaeological record details the growth of a cosmopolitan empire and a prosperous new class rising along with it.

Not as keen as statesmen and intellectuals to show off their status and refinement, members of this new middle class found novel ways to create pleasure and meaning. Joaquin Romero and Maria Riera Expand text… The Phonetics-Phonology Interface: Representations and methodologies This volume is a collection of advanced laboratory phonology research papers concerned with the interaction between the physical and the mental aspects of speech and language. The traditional linguistic theoretic distinction between phonetics and phonology is put to the test here in a series of articles that deal with some of the fundamental issues in the field, from first and second language acquisition to segmental and supra-segmental phenomena in a range of different languages.

Unique features of this volume are the development of innovative experimental methodologies, advanced techniques of data analysis, latest-generation equipment for the observation of speech, and their combined critical application to the study of the phonetics-phonology interface. The volume is therefore not only of great interest but of outstanding value and importance to anyone who wishes to be completely apprised of the latest advances in this crucial area of phonological research. Story, C. In this essential resource, two veteran teachers share the lively and motivating lessons they've created to help students tackle the challenge of revision.

Lesson topics include identifying and targeting a focus for revision, organization, diction and sentence structure, conventions, and more. There were instructions, inscribed on a long, thin strip of paper, for each regular voyage they made, giving detailed directions including star positions, latitudes, bearings and the physical description of islands, prominent headlands, bays and inlets that would be clearly visible along the route. By studying these sailing directions, it is possible to deduce not only the course the Chinese had steered but the accuracy of their navigation and their ability to set a course by the stars.

It is an invaluable document. Zhu Di took a personal interest in astronomy, and in the means by which he could build on the wonderful legacy he had inherited in this field. Chinese astronomers had well over two thousand years of experience of recording events in the night sky. They had noted the appearance of a new star in BC, had charted every arrival of Halley's comet since BC, and by were describing the remnants of the supernova explosion known as the Crab Nebula These revelations were both astounding and horrifying.

The deeper I dug, the more bombshells I uncovered. I was astonished to find that Patagonia and the Andes had been mapped a century before the first Europeans sighted them, and Antarctica had been accurately drawn some four centuries before Europeans reached the continent. The east coast of Africa was shown on another chart, with longitudes that were perfectly correct -- something Europeans did not manage to achieve for another three centuries. Australia appeared on another map, three centuries before Cook, and other charts showed the Carribean, Greenland, the Arctic and the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of both North America and South America long before Europeans had arrived.

Our science of the past flowered in the fullness of time into philology and archaeology, as learned volumes on ancient philosophy have continued to pour forth, to little avail. A few masters of our own time have rediscovered these 'preliterate' accomplishments. Now Dupuis, Kircher and Boll are gone like those archaic figures, and are equally forgotten. That is the devouring way of time.

The iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth her poppies. Darwin, naturalist, February 10th " Darwin, naturalist, July 11th " Darwin, naturalist, April 28th "Alexander von Humboldt has been some hours with me this morning. What a man he is! Long as I have known him, he ever surprises me anew.

One may say he has not his equal in knowledge and living wisdom. Then he has a many-sidedness such as I have found nowhere else.

  • The King of New York?
  • Bridge Is a Conversation:Part I: The Auction.
  • The Curse of the Pharaohs;
  • Liebeswahn (detebe) (German Edition).
  • On whatever point you approach him, he is at home, and lavishes upon us his intellectual treasures. He is like a fountain with many pipes, under which you need only hold a vessel, and from which refreshing and inexhaustible streams are ever flowing. He will stay here some days; and I already feel that it will be with me as if I had lived for years. Von Goethe, naturalist, December 11th "I consider him [Von Humboldt] the most important scientist whom I have met. Ancient Technology "The ancients apparently used the telescope long before Pythagoras's time.

    Radka, historian, The idea of finding tools from this early time period on Crete was about as believable as finding an iPod in King Tut's tomb. Childress, author, The technology I have discovered is optical. Temple, author, Forbidden Technology, It looks like the search for the earliest programmable robot is far from over. It is hard to believe that there were no earlier designs. How he managed this feat remained a mystery until , when US robotics expert Mark Rosheim came to a surprising conclusion. Pulling together fragments of notes and drawings, Rosheim worked out that the lion was almost certainly powered by a clockwork cart illustrated in da Vinci's Codex Atlanticus.

    Intriguingly, Rosheim suggested that the crat's steering mechanism was controlled by arms attached to rotating gears. With this design it would have been possible to control the automaton's movements simply by changing the position of these arms - in other words, Rosheim argues, da Vinci's lion was not only clockwork, it was also programmable.

    This astonishing idea raised some intriguing questions: was da Vinci influenced by an earlier design? And if so, how far back in history can we trace programmable robots? Farrell, author, "Weighing an estimated tons [the trilithon stone of Baalbek], it is sixty-nine feet by sixteen feet by thirteen feet ten inches, making it the single largest piece of stonework ever crafted in the world. Called the Hajar el Gouble, the Stone of the South, or the Hajar el Hibla, the Stone of the Pregnant Woman, it lays at a raised angle with the lowest part of its base still attached to the quarry rock as though it were almost ready to be cut free and transported to its presumed location next to the other stones of the Trilithon.

    Why these stones are such an enigma to contemporary scientists, both engineers and archaeologists alike, is that their method of quarrying, transportation and precision placement is beyond the technological ability of any known ancient or modern builders. Cremo, author, August "It is clear from many fragments of evidence, traditions and lore that we have an incomplete picture of the earliest days of human civilization. It's possible that whole civilizations, some with advanced technology, have come and gone.

    It opposes the sacred domain's divine inhabitants, who fight back with a weapon known only as the Sound Eye. Arjuna counters with his own weapon, which Drona taught both of them; it was only to be used against divine beings, or else it could destroy the world. Brown, author, Mahabharata: The Great Epic of India, "At Baalbek, the builders took on a supreme challenge to human ingenuity by building a podium with decorative facings all of colossal dimensions. The largest are the three trilithons measuring respectively Their average weight is in the region of tonnes. This is a very unusual frieze depicting what appear to be modern machines.

    This photograph is discussed on the internet, and shows what appear to be a helicopter in the upper left, a submarine in the upper right, a flying disc in the middle right and a plane in the lower right. These photographs and glyphs reveal that the Egyptian civilisation was far more mysterious than we have been led to believe. El-Gamili, archaeologist, et al.

    According to his calculations, the drills employed must have penetrated the granite times faster than the modern diamond-tipped drills. The temporocentric view is a hangover from nineteenth century ideas of progress. This crude version of Darwinian evolution has led to many misinterpretations of the archaeological evidence for ancient technological and cultural achievement. This simply isn't true -- there is no evidence that the human brain has evolved at all in the last fifty thousand years at least.

    Modern people are simply benefiting from thousands of years of accumulated knowledge and experiment, not from increased intellect. But the proof that the Sphinx is many, many thousands of years older than the archaeologists think it is, that it preceded by many thousands of years even dynastic Egypt, means that there must have been, at some distant point in history, a high and sophisticated civilization -- just as all the legends affirm. West, egyptologist, Galileo himself noted that the 'ancients' were aware of telescopes.

    In China it was known as the art of Khwai-shuh, by means of which a statue was brought to life to serve it's maker. The description of a mechanical man is contained in the story of Emperor Ta-chouan. The empress found the robot so irresistable that the jealous ruler of the Celestial Empire gave orders to the constructor to break it up in spite of all the admiration that he himself had for the walking robot. Nero the emperor of Rome had optical glasses from the east. Thus, because Democritus announced that the Milky Way is composed of vast multitudes of stars, it has been maintained that he could only have been led to form such an opinion from actual examination of the heavens with a telescope.

    Other passages from the Greek and Latin authors have similarly been cited to prove that the telescope was known to the ancients. A lens, it must be remembered, with a fair magnifying power, has been discovered amongst the Mesopotamian ruins. Cicero, philosopher, 1st century "At least those atoms whence derives their power To throw forth fire and send out light from under To shoot the sparks and scatter embers wide. When I heard that afterwards Arjuna had vanquished the Kalakeyas and the Paulomas proud with the boon they had obtained and which had rendered them invulnerable even to the celestials, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

    Ancient Technology Prehistoric-Technology. Aristotle, Politics, Book I, B. Reti, L. Atomism and Alchemy "The reader becomes immediately aware that we are tracing the footsteps of historical heroes who risked life and limb to plumb the secret depths of Sacred Nature. And who did so while enflamed in prayer. Thereby did these giants give rise to modern chemistry and physics. Today's experiment-driven 'standard model' is not all that dissimilar to Democritus's speculative atomic theory. Lederman, physicist, The God Particle, "The British philosopher Bertrand Russell said that philosophy went downhill after Democritus and did not recover until the Renaissance.

    Lederman, physicist, The God Particle, "Democritus's notion is compatible with our present belief. Lederman, physicist, The God Particle, " Lederman, physicist, The God Particle, The hermetic tradition -- the body of alchemical knowledge -- was believed to have originated in the mists of time and to have been 'given' to humanity through supernatural agents. The very name 'hermetic tradition' derives from the god Hermes Hershbell, professor, March "Democritus understood that the complex forms, changes, and motions of the material world all derived from the interaction of very simple moving parts.

    They believed that everything is composed of atoms, which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between the atoms there is empty space;" -- Bertrand Russell, philosopher, A History of Western Philosophy, "[Thomas] Heath esteems him [Democritus] highly as a mathematician. In the periodic table of elements, the atomic number of gold is 79, that of mercury 80, and of lead 82 -- in other words they are neighbors.

    It was Mendeleyeff who in first formulated a table of the elements and arranged them in order of increasing weight according to their atomic structure. The question is -- had the alchemists discovered the table before Mendeleyeff? A 'No smoking' sign in a train is put up because people have cigarettes in their pockets. What was the reason for these 'No goldmaking' orders? If there were no cases of illegal transmutation, it surely would not have been worthwhile wasting expensive parchment on long, sternly worded decrees.

    After all, it was a long way from Peking to Alexandria, and from Benares to medieval Paris. What was the primary source of this doctrine? The decree shows that the Roman government was certain that such an art existed. It would surely have been unnecessary to issue decrees banning this craft unless it were known to have been practiced. This is why the alchemists were regarded as dreamers, charlatans, or idiots. But in the year the great English physicist Rutherford sided with the alchemists and transmuted nitrogen into oxygen and hydrogen by bombarding it with helium.

    That was the day of the vindication of the alchemical doctrine of transmutation. The astonishing point is this. From the lives and writings of Gassendi and Descartes, who introduced atomism into modern science, we know as an actual historical fact that, in doing so, they were fully aware of taking up the theory of the ancient philosophers whose scripts they had diligently studied.

    Furthermore, and more importantly, all the basic features of the ancient theory have survived in the modern one up to this day, greatly enhanced and widely elaborated but unchanged This question has often been asked and very different opinions about it are on record. Gomperz, Cournot, Bertrand Russell, J. Burnet say: Yes. Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone.

    That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find. Eddington, physicist, "Can we not read into them some justification for the belief that some former forgotten race of men attained not only to the knowledge we have so recently won, but also to the power that is not yet ours?

    It thus seems that it is by a kind of natural affinity that the alchemists reported their origins to Democritus. These voyages were a tradition among the first Greek philosophers, who had the habit of completing their education thus.

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    The voyages of Herodotus are certain and are told by itself. The tradition transmitted to us of the memory of those such as Plato, Pythagoras, and Democritus. These last in particular are attested by all of antiquity. He was a rationalist and a powerful spirit. Nietzsche, philosopher, The Gay Science, Aphorism , "Aristotle consequently reckons Democritus, in spite of his moral sayings, among the Physicists Now for the first time do we have a rigorous, scientifically useful hypothesis.

    Nietzsche, philosopher, The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, This was the teaching of the multitude of philosophers who preceded Aristotle, namely Epicurus, Democritus, Ecphantus, Empedocles, Zenocrates, Heraclides, Asclepiades, Diodorus, Metrodorus of Chios, Pythagoras, and previous to these Moschus the Phoenician whom Strabo declares older than the Trojan war. For I think that same opinion obtained in that mystic philosophy which flowed down to the Greeks from Egypt and Phoenicia, since atoms are sometimes found designated by the mystics as monads.

    Nor yet is it for its weight or malleability that gold has been preferred to the other metals, it being inferior in both respects to lead--but it is because gold is the only substance in nature that suffers no loss from the action of fire, and passes unscathed through conflagrations and the flames of the funeral pile. Nay, even more than this, the oftener gold is subjected to the action of fire, the more refined in quality it becomes; indeed, fire is one test of its goodness, as, when submitted to intense heat, gold ought to assume a similar color, and turn red and igneous in appearance; a mode of testing which is known as 'obrussa.

    Epicurus would surely never have held that view had he chosen to learn geometry from his friend Polyaenus rather than make Polyaenus himself unlearn it. Democritus thought the sun was of great size, as befits a man of education, well-trained in geometry. Epicurus thought that it was maybe a foot across.

    He took the view that it was more or less as big as it looked. Thus when he changes Democritus he makes things worse; when he follows Democritus there is nothing original, as is the case with atoms These motes [atoms] were referred to because they are seen always in movement, even in a complete calm. Com, May Linden, S. Arcane Magic and Occult Science "Sorcery and witchcraft were real, but now they are called physics and chemistry.

    Certain things cause certain effects to happen. Magicians claiming psychic powers, however, are trained to deceive others by fooling their visual senses. It is frustrating that we know nothing of the philosophy of those Pythagoreans like Anaxilaus with a leaning towards the occult. All that can be said of Anaxilaus is that he represents a version of Pythagoreanism that goes back at least to Bolus of Mendes and almost certainly further. Anaxilaus' expulsion not only from Rome but also from Italy in 28 BC in the year in which the new Augustan dispensation came into place suggests that his activities went rather beyond putting together a collection of conjuring-tricks designed to amuse the guests at a symposium, but what he had been doing is a mystery.

    It is virtually certain that Anaxilaus will have given that title to his work. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lugdunum Lyon in the latter half of the second century AD, accuses the Gnostic heresiarch Marcus of using conjuring-tricks from the Paignia of Anaxilaus to impress his followers. He was the last of the magicians. Keynes, economist, The only words that ever satisfied me as describing Nature are the terms used in the fairy books, 'charm,' 'spell,' 'enchantment.

    Water runs downhill because it is bewitched.

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    The sun shines because it is bewitched. It is not a 'law,' for we do not understand it's general formula. According to Pseudo-Callisthenes, and the versions of his works which were translated into Pehlevi, Arabic, Syriac, and a score of other languages and dialects, this king was famous as a magician and a sage, and he was deeply learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians.

    Budge, curator, Egyptian Magic, Windischmann wonders why the Greeks have not pronounced Zarathystres for Zarathustra, rather than Zoroastros or Zoroastres. The reason is, that they recognized in thustra the name of the star, and indeed that of Sirius the Dog-star, as Anquetil and Wahl thought, Tistrya or Teshtri. Sirius was frequently called simply aster , as, e. I am the more inclined to this interpretation, because Sirius plays an important part in the doctrines of Zoroaster. It is well known which signification it had in Egypt. We find traces of them even in the fragmentary remains of the sacred literature of Mexico and Peru.

    And we have been told that this sacred science is not extinct, but still survives, and is practices by men who carefully guard their knowledge from profane hands. Olcott, theosopher, Theosophy: Religion and Occult Science, Nietzsche, philosopher, The Gay Science, Aphorism , But Aristotle, in the first book of his Treatise on Philosophy, says, that the Magi are more ancient than the Egyptians; and that according to them there are two principles, a good demon and an evil demon, and that the name of the one is Jupiter or Oromasdes, and that of the other Pluto or Arimanius.

    And Hermippus gives the same account in the first Book of his History of the Magi; and so does Eudoxus in his Period; and so does Theopompus in the eighth book of his History of the Affairs of Phillip; and this last writer tells us also, that according to the Magi men will have a ressurection and be immortal, and that what exists now will exist hereafter under its own present name; and Eudemus of Rhodes coincides in this statement. But Hecataeus says, that according to their doctrines the gods also are beings who have been born.

    But Clearchus the Solensian, in his Treatise on Education says, that the Gymnosophists are descendants of the Magi; and some say that the Jews also are derived from them. But Xanthus the Lydian says that the passage of the Hellespont by Xerxes took place six thousand years after the time of Zoroaster, and that after him there was a regular succession of Magi under the names of Ostanes and Astrampsychos and Gobryas and Pazatas, until the destruction of the Persian empire by Alexander. For this Theophrastus commends him, that by travelling he had gained better things then Menelaus and Ulysses.

    Of the secret books of this man, those who follow the heresy of Prodicus boast to be in possession. Alexander, in his book On the Pythagorean Symbols, relates that Pythagoras was a pupil of Nazaratus the Assyrian some think he is Ezekial but he is not, as will afterwards be shown , and will have it that, in addition to these, Pythagoras was a hearer of the Gelatae and the Brahmins. That these doctrines should have been received by any portion of mankind, and transmitted to us by the aid of memory, is to me beyond anything I can conceive.

    All the particulars there found are so utterly incredible, so utterly revolting, that those even who admire Democritus in other respects, are strong in their denial that these works were really written by him. Their denial, however, is in vain; for it was he, beyond all doubt, who had the greatest share in fascinating men's minds with these attractive chimeras.

    It was he who first disseminated, as it were, the germs of this monstrous art, and tainted therewith all parts of the world through which the Persians passed. Eudoxus, who has endeavored to show that of all branches of philosophy the magic art is the most illustrious and the most beneficial, informs us that this Zoroaster existed six thousand years before the death of Plato, an assertion in which he is supported by Aristotle. Hermippus, again, an author who has written with the greatest exactness on all particulars connected with this art, and has commented upon the two millions of verses left by Zoroaster, besides completing indexes to his several works, has left a statement, that Agonaces was the name of the master from whom Zoroaster derived his doctrines, and that he lived five thousand years before the time of the Trojan War.

    How very much more marvellous too are the accounts given in this book by the philosopher who, next to Pythagoras, has acquired the most intimate knowledge of the learning of the Magi! The first who descanted upon this subject in our part of the world were Pythagoras and Democritus, who have adopted the accounts given by the Magi. Both of these philosophers [Pythagoras and Democritus] had visited the magicians of Persia, Arabia, Ethiopia, and Egypt, and so astounded were the ancients at their recitals, as to learn to make [scientific] assertions which transcend all belief.

    And it has a village near by, Pimpleia. Here lived Orpheus, the Ciconian, it is said -- a wizard And because we have now occasion to mention Orpheus, we conceive it will not be amiss here to give a short account of him. He was the son of Oeagrus, and by birth a Thracian, for in the art of music and poetry far excelling all that were ever recorded.

    He improved himself, likewise, very much by travelling into Egypt, so that he was accounted to excel the most accomplished person among all the Grecians for his knowledge both in divinity and sacred mysteries, in music, and in poetry. Now the art of the Sophist is, as I believe, of great antiquity; but in ancient times those who practised it, fearing this odium, veiled and disguised themselves under various names, some under that of poets, as Homer, Hesiod, and Simonides, some, of hierophants and prophets, as Orpheus and Musaeus So they came and stood before the king.

    Archaeoastronomy "One wonders whether this proves a special arcane knowledge of Sirius B, or even a planetary system around Sirius, on the part of Voltaire.

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    In recent decades we have come to recognize the astronomical sophistication of ancient non-Western cultures. Otto Neugebauer's Exact Sciences in Antiquity became a foundation text and spurred the beginning of a new interdisciplinary field, archaeoastronomy. Calendrical documents reveal that mathematics and astronomy were among the intellectual hallmarks of the Maya, who emerge as a people thoroughly devoted to these disciplines. Aveni, archaeoastronomer, Skywatchers, As a result of cooperation among them, there has been added to the literature an increasing body of evidence relating to the role of astronomy in the lives of the ancient people of this hemisphere.

    The slow process of integration of the results of these investigations into the mainstream of human intellectual history continues. In , astronomer Gerald Hawkins wrote Stonehenge Decoded , thus rekindling an idea made popular at the end of the nineteenth century by Sir Norman Lockyer [] Hawkins hypothesized that the magaliths standing for 5, years on the plain of southern Great Britain constituted a calendar in stone, each component situated deliberately and precisely to align with astronomical events taking place along the local horizon.

    Detailed works Alexander Thom , and cultural syntheses Euan MacKie , Clive Ruggles , Rodney Castledon , and Aveni have since helped solidify the basis of our understanding of ancient megalithic astronomy as part of an unwritten record of astronomical achievement. The Stonehenge controversy was responsible for a resurgence in interest in the interdisciplinary field of astroarchaeology , a term first coined by Hawkins to encompass the study of astronomical principles employed in ancient works of architecture and the elaboration of a methodology for the retrieval and quantitative analysis of astronomical alignment data.

    The alternate term, archaeoastronomy , came to embody the study of the extent and practice of astronomy among ancient cultures. At that time the Dogon tribal tradition insisted upon the existence of a third star in the system of Sirius which modern astronomers could not confirm.

    Some critics said this proved the hypothesis of the book to be false. If the earth had been visited by intelligent beings from the system of the star Sirius in the distant past, and they had left behind all this precise information about their star system, the fact that they described the existence of a third star, a Sirius C, whose existence could not be confirmed by modern astronomy rendered the whole account untrustworthy.

    However, the existence of Sirius C has now been confirmed after all. Temple] was baffled as to how the Dogon could have known of the existence of Sirius B, given that it is barely visible using a very powerful telescope it was only in the s that the first photograph of Sirius B was obtained with great difficulty by the astronomer Irving Lindenblad. Most people today remain ignorant of the existence of Sirius B and not many would even be aware of Sirius A, so how could the Dogon have had accurate information concerning Sirius B in the s?

    Bauval, author, Some of it has only been discovered very recently by modern scientists, half a century after it was recorded by anthropologists studying the tribe. Eric S. Thompson, archaeologist, It was discovered by J. But the possibility is not excluded that Kepler found the information in some Arab author or some other source, possibly of Babylonian or Chinese origin.

    Kepler did not disclose what the basis of his reference to the red spot of Jupiter was — he could not have arrived at it either by logic and deduction or by sheer guesswork. A scientific prediction must follow from a theory as a logical consequence. Kepler had no theory on that. It is asserted that the Chinese observed solar spots many centuries before Galileo did with his telescope. Observing solar spots, the ancients could have conceivably observed the Jovian red spot, too.

    Jesuit scholars traveled in the early 17th century to China to study Chinese achievements in astronomy. I am convinced that the history of mathematical astronomy is one of the most promising fields of historical research. I hope that this will become evident Neugebauer, archaeoastronomer, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night.

    Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. So when the Lydians and Medes saw the day turned to night, they stopped fighting, and both were the more eager to make peace. Archaeoastronomy Trismegistus, H. Forde, Neugebauer, O. Astrolatry Planetary Gods "Indeed, astronomy was closely linked with their [Maya] religion.

    The Sun, Moon, and planets were their gods. Bauval, author, The Egypt Code, Mesoamerican societies saw the heavenly bodies as gods who influenced their fate and controlled what happened on earth. Aveni, archaeoastronomer, Sky Watchers, It did not take Velikovsky, or any of his precursors, to convince me of this. The ancients, who were in the best position to know what they themselves believed in, so stated in many of their texts. It therefore struck me as strange that most modern mythologists would go to such great pains in attempting to explain mythological characters and themes in anything but cosmic terms.

    And they worshipped those planets, those gods, in the planets themselves. They were lifting their hands, the Babylonians and the Indians, Hindu, and the Chinese, all, they were lifting their hands to those planets in worshipping them. And human sacrifice were brought to them. Even into recent times, among the American Indians, in the last century still, human sacrifice were brought to the planet Venus. The seven platforms were dedicated to the seven planets.

    Ridpath, historian, History of the World, And in the same sense Pythagoras, on account of its immense force of attraction, said that the Sun was a prison of Zeus, that is, a body possessed of the greatest circuits. Such he made this seat; having founded the sacred city, he called it by the name of Thebes in Egypt They call a certain star Mercury, and likewise a certain other star Mars.

    But among those stars which are called by the name of gods, is that one which they call Jupiter, and yet with them Jupiter is the world.

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    There also is that one they call Saturn, and yet they give him no small property beside, namely all seeds. Like these also are the Egyptian beliefs; for they oftentimes call Isis [Venus] by the name of Athena Also the story passed down among the Greeks from ancient myth that Cronus [Saturn] did away with his own children appears to have been kept in mind among the Carthaginians through this observance. But above all importance, they say, is the study of the influence of the five stars known as planets, which they call 'Interpreters' when speaking of them as a group, but if referring to them singly, the one named Cronus [Saturn] by the Greeks, which is the most conspicuous and presages more events and such as are of greater importance than the others, they call the star of Helius, whereas the other four they designate as the stars of Ares [Mars], Aphrodite [Venus], Hermes [Mercury], and Zeus [Jupiter], as do our astrologers.

    And from this it follows that the stars are to be reckoned as gods. For it may be observed that the inhabitants of those countries in which the air is pure and rarefied have keener wits and greater powers of understanding than persons who live an a dense and heavy climate It is therefore likely that the stars possess surpassing intelligence, since they inhabit the ethereal region of the world.

    Again, the consciousness and intelligence of the stars is most clearly evinced by their order and regularity Not yet can it be said that some stronger force compels the heavenly bodies to travel in a manner contrary to their nature, for what stronger force can there be? It remains therefore that the motion of the heavenly bodies is voluntary Therefore the existence of the gods is so manifest that I can scarcely deem one who denies it to be of sound mind.

    Seeing that they were always moving and running, from their running nature they were called Gods or runners Theous, Theontas " -- Plato, philosopher, Cratylus, B. Indra [Jupiter] hurled the thunderbolt at V ri tra [Venus] Whiston, W. The Reversal of Retrograde Rotation "According to the legend, the ancient peoples [of Lake Titicaca] had been without light for many days.

    Ruggles, archaeoastronomer, "It is said that in this province [Titicaca] the people of ancient times tell of being without light from the heavens for many days, and all of the local inhabitants were astonished, confused, and frightened to have total darkness for such a long time. Finally, the people of the Island of Titicaca saw the Sun come up one morning out of that crag with extraordinary radiance.

    Fortunately, men were not illiterate at the time of these catastrophes.

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    Ideas in nearly every field of scholarship were challenged, but most seriously challenged of all were certain dogmas in the field of astronomy which had only in recent centuries succeeded in convincing mankind that Spaceship Earth was a haven of safety. The emotional outburst from the community of astronomers that so blackened the name Velikovsky and so successfully - if only temporarily - discredited Worlds in Collision has been laid to many causes, from the psychological and the political to simple resentment against invasion of the field by an outsider.

    Whatever the nature of such intensifying factors, however, I believe it is only fair to acknowledge an underlying and totally sincere scientific disbelief in the historical record. Juergens, engineer, "Could the [American] Indians on this continent know the connection between the sun appearing over the horizon, Eastern horizon, dropping down, again appearing, dropping down, and all the continent, this continent, bursting in flame? How could they know the connection? So they could not invent the stories.

    Something must have happened. So it was created if not years ago, then 6 billion years ago. But then for 6 billion years there was no change. Whether it was created or came into being by tidal action of a passing star which would be catastrophic as the tidal theory wishes or it is growing out of a nebula, the nebular theory which goes back to Kant and Laplace, but since creation there was no change. But if what I am telling you is truth, then there were changes, and very many, and very recently too.

    The beginning of the age of Nabonassar, otherwise an obscure Babylonian king, was an astronomical date used as late as the second Christian century by the great mathematician and astronomer of the Alexandrian school, Ptolemy, and also by other scholars. It was employed as a point of departure of ancient astronomical tables. Farther back there was no certainty in regard to the calculation of time. It is from that moment that the records of the eclipses begin which Ptolemy used. The end of the Middle Kingdom antedated the time of Queen Hatshepsut by several centuries.

    The astronomical ceiling presenting a reversed orientation must have been a venerated chart, made obsolete a number of centuries earlier. So it is not a law that a planet of the solar system must rotate from west to east and that the sun must rise in the east.

    Bellamy, author, "The Chinese say that it is only since a new order of things has come about that the stars move from east to west. Bellamy, author, "The next reference to meteors is found in the Chinese annals for B.


    It is given by Biot as follows: ' March 23 , during the night the fixed stars did not appear, although the night was clear. Olivier, astronomer, " The Duke, swinging his spear, beckoned to the sun, whereupon the sun, for his sake, came back and passed through three solar mansions. Frazer, translator, "As told by Huaman Poma, five such ages had preceded that in which he lived. The first was an age of Viracochas, an age of gods, of holiness, of life without death, although at the same time it was devoid of inventions and refinements; the second was an age of skin-clad giants, the Huari Runa, or 'Indigenes,' worshippers of Viracocha; third came the age of Puron Runa, or 'Common Men,' living without culture; fourth, that of Auca Runa, 'Warriors,' and fifth that of the Inca rule, ended by the coming of the Spaniards.

    Alexander, historian, "Harakhte [The Sun] Breasted, egyptologist, "The travelling toward the east [of the sun] and the disappearance in the east In the middle of the night stars fell like rain. These four suns are as many ages, in which our species has been annihilated by inundations, by earthquakes, by a general conflagration, and by the effect of destroying tempests.

    What may be the cause of this, and what can make us certain of it? The question may be investigated historically. This may be done by examining monuments of antiquity dating from remotest times Solinus, grammarian, 3rd century "Soles fuerre quinque. Seneca, philosopher statesman, 1st century "Whither, O father of the lands and skies, before whose rising thick night with all her glories flees, whither doest turn thy course and why dost blot out the day in mid-Olympus? Why, O Phoebus, dost snatch away thy face? What has driven thee from thy heavenly course? What cause form their fixed track has turned aside thy horses?

    Is the prison-house of Dis thrown wide and are the conquered Giants again essaying war? Seneca, philosopher statesman, 1st century. And animals, as we know, survive with difficulty great and serious changes of many different kinds when they come upon them at once. Hence there necessarily occurs a great destruction of them, which extends also to-the life of man; few survivors of the race are left, and those who remain become the subjects of several novel and remarkable phenomena Of all changes of the heavenly motions, we may consider this to be the greatest and most complete.

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    Four times in this period so they told me the sun rose contrary to experience; twice he came up where he now goes down, and twice went down where he now comes up. Then shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded: yea, they shall all cover their lips; for there is no answer of God. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down. So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. Euripides, Orestes, B. Plato, Timaeus Jowett , B. Plato, Critias, B.

    Plato, The Statesman, B. Plato, The Republic, B. Cicero, M. Com Velikovsky, I. Velikovsky, I,. The Music of the Spheres " Aristotle was proud to state it as known that the gods were originally [wandering] stars, even if popular fantasy had obscured this truth. Little as he believed in progress, he felt this much had been secured for the future. He could not guess that W. Ross, his modern editor, would condescendingly annotate, 'This is historically untrue.

    Such names are as old as time; as old, certainly, as the planetary heptagram of the Harranians. They go back far before Professor Ross' Greek philology. The inquiries of great and meticulous scholars such as Ideler, Lepsius, Chwolson, Boll and, to go further back, of Athanasius Kircher and Petavius, had they only been read carefully, and noted, would have taught several relevant lessons to the historians of culture, but interest shifted to other goals, as can be seen from current anthropology, which has built up it's own idea of the 'primitive' and what came after.

    This is testified to by I am not able to say, whether the sound caused by the whirling about of so great a mass be excessive, and, therefore, far beyond what our ears can perceive, nor, indeed, whether the resounding of so many stars, all carried along at the same time and revolving in their orbits, may not produce a kind of delightful harmony of incredible sweetness. To us, who are in the interior, the world appears to glide silently along, both by day and night. Acoustic Antigravity Videos Deak, D. Spherical Earth "Purveyors of the flat-earth myth could never deny this plain testimony of Bede, Bacon, Aquinas, and others -- so they argued that these men acted as rare beacons of light in pervasive darkness.

    But consider the absurdity of such a position. Who formed the orthodoxy representing the consensus of ignorance? Two pip-squeaks named Lactantius and Cosmas Indicopleustes?