Robinet, in his work De la Nature , asks the question, "Who is God? The Seed is the Life. Good and evil are equally balanced, and their equipoise constitutes the reality of the world. Baron Holbach sums up the movement, and the treatise now attributed to him utters the last word of French materialism. It seeks to establish scientifically the doctrine that nothing exists but matter.
It combines the materialism of La Mettrie, the sensationalism of Condillac, and the self-interest of Helvetius, and preaches the gospel of freedom from superstition and oppression. Holbach , though born in Germany, lived mostly in Paris. His salon was the rendezvous of the leading spirits of the time. The Universe discloses nothing but a combination of matter and movement, an unbroken chain of causes and effects, of which causes some affect our senses, and some do not, and are, therefore, unknown to us. The essence of things consists for us in innumerable combinations which are constantly altering.
The totality of things is le grand Tous , which we call nature. In nature is neither purpose nor order—nothing but necessity. Everything is an activity. Nothing continues in one stay. There is an everlasting appearing and vanishing—a constant attraction and repulsion of elements. These are called by moralists sympathy and antipathy, love and hate, friendship and sincerity. But these two sets are really identical; the difference between the moral and the physical arises only from the different kinds of molecules. Man is not a duality of body and soul. What we call soul is only part of the body, and it is the molecular motions of the brain which produce thought and will.
The belief in God has its origin in a false distinction of mind and matter. Nothing in nature points to the existence of a God. Theology ascribes to him conflicting moral properties, and can only distinguish him by negative attributes. Many are of opinion that religion is necessary in order to restrain and direct the actions of men. It would be as reasonable to argue that you must give a man poison lest he abuse his powers. The idea of immortality is mischievous in so far as it withdraws human interest from the present world. Man, in short, is a tool in the hands of an inexorable necessity.
He has neither freedom nor immortality. The superstitions of theologians only engender unrest. Materialism has the virtue of consistency, and accords with nature and life as we know them. It frees man from torturing impatience and delivers him from the fear of God and the reproach of conscience.
It teaches him to enjoy personal happiness and to endure his lot with equanimity. Morality, which is founded on self-interest, is to be promoted by mutual forbearance. The gospel of the System of Nature was one which appealed to the spirit of the age, and the work was hailed with approbation. It was a fierce and fanatical polemic against everything spiritual and moral.
The notion of God as the source of all falsehood and hypocrisy was to be completely banished, and nature, with her unalterable laws, was to take its place. Truth and religion are sworn enemies,—reason and superstition irreconcilable opposites. Let us recognise the plain truth, that it is these supernatural ideas that have obscured morality, corrupted politics, hindered the advance of the sciences, and extinguished happiness and peace in the heart of man" Morley, Diderot.
Realism could reach no further than this, the System of Nature was the extreme of materialism, and the works which sought to outbid it are utterly unworthy of consideration. Grimm said of them that they were an exposition of Atheism fit for chambermaids and hairdressers. Men were no longer content to repeat what Diderot uttered on his death-bed—"The first step to philosophy is unbelief.
Erdmann, Geschichte , vol. French Illuminism ended in scepticism and negation. Freedom became its watchword and reason its weapon : but it was a freedom which meant licence and caprice: a reason of destruction and self-interest. The individual is to be the sole measure of truth and right; Self, the standard of duty. Let us exalt the intellect, and before the advancing light of reason, tyranny and priestcraft, social injustice and oppression, must vanish. Let men study science and submit to that inexorable necessity which prevails everywhere, in the moral not less than the physical world.
At this juncture there came forward a remarkable man, who gave utterance to the thoughts which were seething in many minds, and who, while he opposed, also completed the one-sided and negative rationalism of the Enlightenment. He was at once the offspring of the Illumination and the parent of a new movement which ultimately found its expression in the Revolution. At first an adherent of the Encyclopedists and the friend of Voltaire and Diderot, he soon passed beyond their position and became their bitter opponent.
He lived a strange and checkered life, full of vicissitudes and inconsistencies, now in the depths of poverty and now on the crest of fame. Of a keenly sensitive temperament and suspicious nature, after a career of adventure and misfortune, vexed with deepening melancholy and hallucinations verging on madness, he died at Paris in He has given a frank and faithful account of his life in his Confessions , in which he has not attempted to minimize his vices and weaknesses.
He was a man of rare genius, yet a mass of inconsistencies. He combined the most exalted ideals with an almost unparalleled weakness of will and instability of moral character. Sentiment and action, feeling and purpose, were strangely fused in him. Yet few men have left the impress of their personality more forcibly on their generation than he has done.
It is scarcely possible to exaggerate the influence of the genius of Rousseau. Lecky, "plunged more recklessly into paradox, or supported his paradoxes with more consummate skill. His revolt against the conventionalities of his day penetrated all classes of French society, revolutionizing social distinctions and overturning time-honoured traditions and customs. He has been styled the conscience of France—the voice of protest against the crass negations and empty atheism of his time. His merit lies in opposing spiritualism to materialism, in advocating the social instincts of humanity as against a narrow egoism, and in exalting feeling in the place of cold analytic reason as the essence and inner power of man.
His first work was a prize essay on the Influence of the Arts and Sciences , in , which was followed in by another on the Inequality of Man. One thought runs through all his books—Civilization is the great evil, the parent of all vices. Man, as he comes from the hands of Nature, is good, but society has spoiled him. He, not less than the leaders of the Enlightenment, is the champion of individual freedom, but the emancipation which he sought was not to come by the exercise of the intellect in the cultivation of science, but by a return to the original instincts of humanity.
Let us do away with all artificial conventions and all unnatural restrictions. Let us get back to primitive life. Civilization, with its burdens and inequalities, has enslaved man. All knowledge and refinement, all science and culture, have but made man untrue to his vocation and false to his nature. Society, with its creation of property and division of labour and separation of classes, has awakened selfish passions and created every crime. We must undo history.
We must begin at the beginning again and let man develop his freedom naturally. In Emile Rousseau develops his ideas of education, which are largely borrowed from Locke. Let us isolate the individual, put him under a private tutor, so that, withdrawn from the influence of society, his true nature may unfold. Let the stress be chiefly laid on physical rather than intellectual training. Exercise his bodily functions and preserve in their naturalness and innocence all his primitive instincts.
The intuitions of feeling afford a light more brilliant and more pure than all the light of reason. Let us, therefore, always listen to the holy voice of Nature, our only guide to truth and happiness. But, while Rousseau would lead us back to a state of nature, he does not advocate isolation. He sees the necessity of the social life for the development and mutual protection of man. What he really inveighs against is the artificiality of modern society. He would have history begin afresh, and would have men form a new social constitution according to which the individual might enjoy his full freedom, and, at the same time, the advantage and protection of State provisions.
Like Hobbes and Locke, therefore, Rousseau would base society on a contract by which men agree, for the sake of certain advantages, to restrict their individual liberties. The individual is not to exist for the State; on the contrary, the State is to exist for the individual.
Man as man can only come to his highest through society. Government is, therefore, to be a democracy; it is to be based on the will of the people, and everywhere the rights of the individual are to be the first consideration. In the sphere of religion also Rousseau sought to oppose the prevailing Atheism of his age and to lead men back to nature, basing his ideas of God, virtue, and immortality upon the religion of the heart. If his politics, says Falchenberg, was the utterance of the Swiss Republican, his theory of religion revealed the Genevan Calvinist.
In the confession of faith, put into the mouth of the Savoyard vicar in Emile , he exalts Deism as the true religion of feeling. The book, however, pleased neither the Church nor the Rationalist party. It was burned by order of the Government, and repudiated by the Encyclopedists. In Rousseau's religion of the heart we may detect the first germs of that emotional theology which afterwards became dominant, especially in Germany, in the form of Pietism.
We cannot prove the existence of God or the immortality of the soul, but we have an inner feeling with regard to both which is irresistible. In opposition to those who would deify reason, Rousseau is never weary of proclaiming that the heart is greater than the intellect, and that our own subjective feelings are, in spiritual matters, a surer guide than the reasonings of the mind. But I feel that He is. That is enough for me. The less I comprehend the more devoutly do I pray. In the second part of the Profession de foi Rousseau endeavours to vindicate the reasonableness of a Divine Revelation.
God requires no other service from man than the devotion of the heart. Reason is incompetent to decide the truth of Revelation. But the majesty and simplicity of Scriptures are its best evidence. That Christ was no mere man, that He was no fanatic or vulgar sectary, the meekness and purity of His life, the wisdom and grace of His words, the majesty of His person, and the elevation of His teaching, bear witness. Socrates lived and died as a philosopher. Jesus as a God.
Whence did the writers of the Gospel obtain so noble a character as that of Jesus? From what sources did they derive so peerless a code of ethics?
To have created such a life and to have invented such a system of truth would be a greater miracle than the life of Jesus itself. So everywhere the assurance of the heart vanquishes the doubt of the head. These utterances sound strangely on the lips of the author of the Confessions , and his exalted sentiments of religion but ill accord with his life of indulgence and sense.
But Rousseau was a living paradox, and in his profession of faith, not less than in the confession of his life, he was a sentimentalist. He is the apostle of subjective feeling. He worshipped self and revelled in the ecstasy of emotion. He lived in a world of inner contemplation, brooding over his own thoughts and finding supreme satisfaction in lonely self-analysis. He was an egoist not less than Helvetius or Voltaire. It is the last word of individualism—at once the completion and dissolution of Illuminism.
The enlightenment was a necessary moment in the evolution of thought. Tzara was openly attacked by Breton in a February article for Le Journal de Peuple , where the Romanian writer was denounced as "an impostor" avid for "publicity". The French writer used the occasion to strike out Tzara's name from among the Dadaists, citing in his support Dada's Huelsenbeck, Serner, and Christian Schad.
Basing his statement on a note supposedly authored by Huelsenbeck, Breton also accused Tzara of opportunism, claiming that he had planned wartime editions of Dada works in such a manner as not to upset actors on the political stage, making sure that German Dadaists were not made available to the public in countries subject to the Supreme War Council's control. Tzara, who attended the Congress only as a means to subvert it, responded to the accusations the same month, arguing that Huelsenbeck's note was fabricated and that Schad had not been one of the original Dadaists.
Rumors reported much later by American writer Brion Gysin had it that Breton's claims also depicted Tzara as an informer for the Prefecture of Police. In May , Dada staged its own funeral. According to Hans Richter, the main part of this took place in Weimar, where the Dadaists attended a festival of the Bauhaus art school, during which Tzara proclaimed the elusive nature of his art: "Dada is useless, like everything else in life.
In "The Bearded Heart" manifesto a number of artists backed the marginalization of Breton in support of Tzara. Breton interrupted its performance and reportedly fought with several of his former associates and broke furniture, prompting a theatre riot that only the intervention of the police halted. Dada's vaudeville declined in importance and disappeared altogether after that date. Breton marked the end of Dada in , when he issued the first Surrealist Manifesto.
Richter suggests that "Surrealism devoured and digested Dada. Tzara continued to write, becoming more seriously interested in the theater. In , he published and staged the play Handkerchief of Clouds , which was soon included in the repertoire of Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. He also collected his earlier Dada texts as Seven Dada Manifestos. Marxist thinker Henri Lefebvre reviewed them enthusiastically; he later became one of the author's friends.
In Romania, Tzara's work was partly recuperated by Contimporanul , which notably staged public readings of his works during the international art exhibit it organized in , and again during the "new art demonstration" of In a interview with the publication, he voiced his opposition to the Surrealist group's adoption of communism, indicating that such politics could only result in a "new bourgeoisie" being created, and explaining that he had opted for a personal "permanent revolution", which would preserve "the holiness of the ego".
In , Tristan Tzara was in Stockholm, where he married Greta Knutson, with whom he had a son, Christophe born The rigidly functionalist Maison Tristan Tzara , built in Montmartre, was designed following Tzara's specific requirements and decorated with samples of African art. It was Loos' only major contribution in his Parisian years. In , he reconciled with Breton, and sporadically attended the Surrealists' meetings in Paris. The same year, he issued the poetry book De nos oiseaux "Of Our Birds".
By then, it was also announced that Tzara had started work on a screenplay. Toklas , in which he accused his former friend of being a megalomaniac. The poet became involved in further developing Surrealist techniques, and, together with Breton and Valentine Hugo, drew one of the better-known examples of "exquisite corpses". Tzara's wife was also affiliated with the Surrealist group at around the same time.
This association ended when she parted with Tzara late in the s. The first such edition saw print in , and featured the poems Tzara had left in Vinea's care. In , Tzara exchanged letters with his friend Jacques G. Costin, a Contimporanul affiliate who did not share all of Vinea's views on literature, who offered to organize his visit to Romania and asked him to translate his work into French.
Alarmed by the establishment of Adolf Hitler's Nazi German regime, which also signified the end of Berlin's avant-garde, he merged his activities as an art promoter with the cause of anti-fascism, and was close to the French Communist Party PCF. In , Richter recalled, he published a series of photographs secretly taken by Kurt Schwitters in Hanover, works which documented the destruction of Nazi propaganda by the locals, ration stamp with reduced quantities of food, and other hidden aspects of Hitler's rule. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain, he briefly left France and joined the Republican forces.
Tzara had also signed Cunard's June call to intervention against Francisco Franco. Reportedly, he and Nancy Cunard were romantically involved. Although the poet was moving away from Surrealism, his adherence to strict Marxism-Leninismwas reportedly questioned by both the PCF and the Soviet Union. SemioticianPhilip Beitchman places their attitude in connection with Tzara's own vision ofUtopia, which combined communist messages with Freudo-Marxistpsychoanalysisand made use of particularly violent imagery.
Reportedly, Tzara refused to be enlisted in supporting the party line, maintaining his independence and refusing to take the forefront at public rallies. However, others note that the former Dadaist leader would often show himself a follower of political guidelines. Historian Irina Livezeanu notes that Tzara, who agreed with Stalinism and shunned Trotskyism, submitted to the PCF cultural demands during the writers' congress of , even when his friend Crevel committed suicide to protest the adoption of socialist realism. At a later stage, Livezeanu remarks, Tzara reinterpreted Dada and Surrealism as revolutionary currents, and presented them as such to the public.
This stance she contrasts with that of Breton, who was more reserved in his attitudes. During World War II, Tzara took refuge from the German occupation forces, moving to the southern areas, controlled by the Vichy regime. On one occasion, the antisemiticand collaborationist publication Je Suis Partout made his whereabouts known to the Gestapo.
He was in Marseillein late early , joining the group of anti-fascist and Jewish refugees who, protected by American diplomat Varian Fry, were seeking to escape Nazi-occupied Europe. During the months spent together, and before some of them received permission to leave for America, they invented a new card game, on which traditional card imagery was replaced with Surrealist symbols. A contributor to magazines published by the Resistance, Tzara also took charge of the cultural broadcast for the Free French Forces clandestine radio station. He lived in Aix-en-Provence, then in Souillac, and ultimately in Toulouse.
Upon the end of the war and the restoration of French independence, Tzara was naturalizeda French citizen. According to Livezeanu, he "helped reclaim the Southfrom the cultural figures who had associated themselves to Vichy [France]. In , he became a full member of the PCF according to some sources, he had been one since Over the following decade, Tzara lend his support to political causes. Pursuing his interest in primitivism, he became a critic of the Fourth Republic's colonial policy, and joined his voice to those who supported decolonization.
Nevertheless, he was appointed cultural ambassador of the Republic by the Paul Ramadier cabinet. He returned to Romania on an official visit in late early , as part of a tour of the emerging Eastern Bloc during which he also stopped in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. In September of the same year, he was present at the conference of the pro-communist International Union of Students where he was a guest of the French-based Union of Communist Students, and met with similar organizations from Romania and other countries.
Hikmet was eventually released in July , and publicly thanked Tzara during his subsequent visit to Paris. Tzara continued to be an active promoter of modernist culture. Around , having read Irish author Samuel Beckett's manuscript of Waiting for Godot , Tzara facilitated the play's staging by approaching producerRoger Blin. In , he introduced Picasso to art dealer Heinz Berggruen thus helping start their lifelong partnership , and, in , wrote the catalog for an exhibit of works by his friend Max Ernst; the text celebrated the artist's "free use of stimuli" and "his discovery of a new kind of humor.
However, unlike much of Hungarian public opinion, the poet did not recommend emancipation from Soviet control, and described the independence demanded by local writers as "an abstract notion". The statement he issued, widely quoted in the Hungarian and international press, forced a reaction from the PCF: through Aragon's reply, the party deplored the fact that one of its members was being used in support of "anti-communistand anti-Soviet campaigns.
His return to France coincided with the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution, which ended with a Soviet military intervention. Tzara's apparent dissidence and the crisis he helped provoke within the Communist Party were celebrated by Breton, who had adopted a pro-Hungarian stance, and who defined his friend and rival as "the first spokesman of the Hungarian demand.
In early , Tzara attended a Dada retrospective on the Rive Gauche, which ended in a riot caused by the rival avant-garde Mouvement Jariviste, an outcome which reportedly pleased him. In , as recognition for his work as a poet, Tzara was awarded the prestigious Taormina Prize.
Much critical commentary about Tzara surrounds the measure to which the poet identified with the national cultures which he represented. Paul Cernat notes that the association between Samyro and the Jancos, who were Jews, and their ethnic Romaniancolleagues, was one sign of a cultural dialog, in which "the openness of Romanian environments toward artistic modernity" was stimulated by "young emancipated Jewish writers. Tzara himself used elements alluding to his homeland in his early Dadaist performances.
Addressing the Romanian public in , he claimed to have been captivated by "the sweet language of Moldavianpeasants". Tzara nonetheless rebelled against his birthplace and upbringing. His earliest poems depict provincial Moldavia as a desolate and unsettling place. In Cernat's view, this imagery was in common use among Moldavian-born writers who also belonged to the avant-garde trend, notably Benjamin Fondane and George Bacovia. According to the same author, two important elements in this process were "a maternal attachment and a break with paternal authority", an "Oedipus complex" which he also argued was evident in the biographies of other Symbolist and avant-garde Romanian authors, from Urmuz to Mateiu Caragiale.
Unlike Vinea and the Contimporanul group, Cernat proposes, Tzara stood for radicalism and insurgency, which would also help explain their impossibility to communicate. The Monsieur's Antipyrine's Manifesto featured a cosmopolitan appeal: "DADA remains within the framework of European weaknesses, it's still shit, but from now on we want to shit in different colors so as to adorn the zoo of art with all the flags of all the consulates.
With time, Tristan Tzara came to be regarded by his Dada associates as an exotic character, whose attitudes were intrinsically linked with Eastern Europe. Early on, Ball referred to him and the Janco brothers as "Orientals". Hans Richter believed him to be a fiery and impulsive figure, having little in common with his German collaborators. In the s, Richard Huelsenbeck alleged that his former colleague had always been separated from other Dadaists by his failure to appreciate the legacy of "German humanism", and that, compared to his German colleagues, he was "a barbarian".
In his polemic with Tzara, Breton also repeatedly placed stress on his rival's foreign origin. At home, Tzara was occasionally targeted for his Jewishness, culminating in the ban enforced by the Ion Antonescu regime. In , Const. Emilian, the first Romanian to write an academic study on the avant-garde, attacked him from a conservativeand antisemiticposition.
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He depicted Dadaists as "Judaeo-Bolsheviks" who corrupted Romanian culture, and included Tzara among the main proponents of "literary anarchism". Alleging that Tzara's only merit was to establish a literary fashion, while recognizing his "formal virtuosity and artistic intelligence", he claimed to prefer Tzara in his Simbolul stage.
Nine years after Emilian's polemic text, fascist poet and journalist Radu Gyr published an article in Convorbiri Literare , in which he attacked Tzara as a representative of the "Judaicspirit", of the "foreign plague" and of "materialist-historical dialectics". The influence of French Symbolists on the young Samyro was particularly important, and surfaced in both his lyricand prose poems. Attached to Symbolist musicalityat that stage, he was indebted to his Simbolul colleague Ion Minulescuand the Belgian poet Maurice Maeterlinck.
Philip Beitchman argues that "Tristan Tzara is one of the writers of the twentieth century who was most profoundly influenced by symbolism—and utilized many of its methods and ideas in the pursuit of his own artistic and social ends. The series is seen by Cernat as "the general rehearsal for the Dada adventure.
Beitchman notes that, throughout his life, Tzara used Symbolist elements against the doctrines of Symbolism. Thus, he argues, the poet did not cultivate a memory of historical events, "since it deludes man into thinking that there was something when there was nothing. According to Beitchman, Tzara's uses the Symbolist message that "the birthright [of humans] has been sold for a mess of porridge", taking it "into the streets, cabarets and trains where he denounces the deal and asks for his birthright back. The transition to a more radical form of poetry seems to have taken place in , during the periods when Tzara and Vinea were vacationing together.
The pieces share a number of characteristics and subjects, and the two poets even use them to allude to one another or, in one case, to Tzara's sister. In addition to the lyrics were they both speak of provincial holidays and love affairs with local girls, both friends intended to reinterpret William Shakespeare's Hamlet from a modernist perspective, and wrote incomplete texts with this as their subject. However, Paul Cernat notes, the texts also evidence a difference in approach, with Vinea's work being "meditative and melancholic", while Tzara's is "hedonistic". Tzara often appealed to revolutionary and ironic images, portraying provincial and middle classenvironments as places of artificiality and decay, demystifying pastoral themes and evidencing a will to break free.
Although they are noted for their radical break with the traditional form of Romanian verse, Ball's diary entry of February 5, , indicates that Tzara's works were still "conservative in style". Tzara the Dadaist was inspired by the contributions of his experimental modernist predecessors. Despite Dada's condemnation of Futurism, various authors note the influence Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and his circle exercised on Tzara's group. In , he was in correspondence with both Apollinaireand Marinetti.
Traditionally, Tzara is also seen as indebted to the early avant-garde and black comedy writings of Romania's Urmuz. For a large part, Dada focused on performances and satire, with shows that often had Tzara, Marcel Janco and Huelsenbeck for their main protagonists. With time, Tristan Tzara merged his performances and his literature, taking part in developing Dada's "simultaneist poetry", which was meant to be read out loud and involved a collaborative effort, being, according to Hans Arp, the first instance of Surrealist automatism.
Ball stated that the subject of such pieces was "the value of the human voice. His poems are like Nature [where] a tiny particle is as beautiful and important as a star. Art historian Roger Cardinal describes Tristan Tzara's Dada poetry as marked by "extreme semantic and syntactic incoherence". Tzara, who recommended destroying just as it is created, had devised a personal system for writing poetry, which implied a seemingly chaotic reassembling of words that had been randomly cut out of newspapers.
The Romanian writer also spent the Dada period issuing a long series of manifestos, which were often authored as prose poetry, and, according to Cardinal, were characterized by "rumbustious tomfoolery and astringent wit", which reflected "the language of a sophisticated savage". Huelsenbeck credited Tzara with having discovered in them the format for "compress[ing] what we think and feel",and, according to Hans Richter, the genre "suited Tzara perfectly.
His Dada manifesto of stated: "Dada means nothing", adding "Thought is produced in the mouth. According to Philip Beitchman, a core concept in Tzara's thought was that "as long as we do things the way we think we once did them we will be unable to achieve any kind of livable society. Despite adopting such anti-artistic principles, Richter argues, Tzara, like many of his fellow Dadaists, did not initially discard the mission of "furthening the cause of art. La Revue Dada 2 , which also includes the onomatopoeicline tralalalalalalalalalalala , is one example where Tzara applies his principles of chance to sounds themselves.
This sort of arrangement, treasured by many Dadaists, was probably connected with Apollinaire's calligrams, and with his announcement that "Man is in search of a new language. Late in his career, Huelsenbeck alleged that Tzara never actually applied the experimental methods he had devised. The Dada series makes ample use of contrast, ellipses, ridiculous imagery and nonsensical verdicts. The text culminates in a series of doodles and illegible words. In his play Handkerchief of Clouds , Tzara explores the relation between perception, the subconsciousand memory.
Tzara mocks classical theater, which demands from characters to be inspiring, believable, and to function as a whole: Handkerchief of Clouds requires actors in the role of commentators to address each other by their real names, and their lines include dismissive comments on the play itself, while the protagonist, who in the end dies, is not assigned any name. Writing for Integral , Tzara defined his play as a note on "the relativity of things, sentiments and events. Writing in , Fondane rendered a pronouncement by Jean Cocteau, who, while commenting that Tzara was one of his "most beloved" writers and a "great poet", argued: " Handkerchief of Clouds was poetry, and great poetry for that matter—but not theater.
After , with the adoption of Surrealism, Tzara's literary works discard much of their satirical purpose, and begin to explore universal themes relating to the human condition. According to Cardinal, the period also signified the definitive move from "a studied inconsequentiality" and "unreadable gibberish" to "a seductive and fertile surrealist idiom. This period in Tzara's creative activity centers on The Approximate Man , an epic poem which is reportedly recognized as his most accomplished contribution to French literature. While maintaining some of Tzara's preoccupation with language experimentation, it is mainly a study in social alienation and the search for an escape.
Cardinal calls the piece "an extended meditation on mental and elemental impulses [ The goal is a new man who lets intuition and spontaneity guide him through life, and who rejects measure. The next stage in Tzara's career saw a merger of his literary and political views. His poems of the period blend a humanist vision with communisttheses. The Grains et issues , described by Beitchman as "fascinating", was a prose poem of social criticism connected with The Approximate Man , expanding on the vision of a possible society, in which haste has been abandoned in favor of oblivion.
The world imagined by Tzara abandons symbols of the past, from literature to public transportation and currency, while, like psychologists Sigmund Freud and Wilhelm Reich, the poet depicts violence as a natural means of human expression. People of the future live in a state which combines waking life and the realm of dreams, and life itself turns into revery.
Grains et issues was accompanied by Personage d'insomnie "Personage of Insomnia" , which went unpublished. Cardinal notes: "In retrospect, harmony and contact had been Tzara's goals all along. In his last writings, Tzara toned down experimentation, exercising more control over the lyrical aspects. Beside the many authors who were attracted into Dada through his promotional activities, Tzara was able to influence successive generations of writers. One of the Romanian writers to claim inspiration from Tzara was Jacques G.
Costin, who nevertheless offered an equally good reception to both Dadaism and Futurism, whileIlarie Voronca's Zodiac cycle, first published in France, is traditionally seen as indebted to The Approximate Man. The Kabbalist and Surrealist author Marcel Avramescu, who wrote during the s, also appears to have been directly inspired by Tzara's views on art. Beat writer Allen Ginsberg, who made his acquaintance in Paris, cites him among the Europeans who influenced him and William S. The latter also mentioned Tzara's use of chance in writing poetry as an early example of what became the cut-up technique, adopted by Brion Gysinand Burroughs himself.
Gysin, who conversed with Tzara in the late s, records the latter's indignation that Beat poets were "going back over the ground we [Dadaists] covered in ", and accuses Tzara of having consumed his creative energies into becoming a "Communist Party bureaucrat". The former Situationist Isou, whose experiments with sounds and poetry come in succession to Apollinaire and Dada, declared hisLettrism to be the last connection in the Charles Baudelaire-Tzara cycle, with the goal of arranging "a nothing [ In retrospect, various authors describe Tzara's Dadaist shows and street performances as "happenings", with a word employed by post-Dadaists and Situationists, which was coined in the s.
Some also credit Tzara with having provided an ideological source for the development of rock music, including punk rock, punk subculture and post-punk. Tristan Tzara has inspired the songwriting technique of Radiohead, and is one of the avant-garde authors whose voices were mixed by DJ Spookyon his trip hop album Rhythm Science. According to Paul Cernat, Aliluia , one of the few avant-garde texts authored by Ion Vinea features a "transparent allusion" to Tristan Tzara. Tzara's legacy in literature also covers specific episodes of his biography, beginning with Gertrude Stein's controversial memoir.
One of his performances is enthusiastically recorded by Malcolm Cowley in his autobiographical book of , Exile's Return , and he is also mentioned in Harold Loeb's memoir The Way It Was. At some point between and , Tzara is believed to have played chess in a coffeehouse that was also frequented by Bolshevikleader Vladimir Lenin. While Richter himself recorded the incidental proximity of Lenin's lodging to the Dadaist milieu, no record exists of an actual conversation between the two figures.
Andrei Codrescu believes that Lenin and Tzara did play against each other, noting that an image of their encounter would be "the proper icon of the beginning of [modern] times. German playwright and novelist Peter Weiss, who has introduced Tzara as a character in his play about Leon Trotsky Trotzki im Exil , recreated the scene in his cycle The Aesthetics of Resistance. His role was notably played by David Westhead in the Britishproduction, and by Tom Hewitt in the American version.
Alongside his collaborations with Dada artists on various pieces, Tzara himself was a subject for visual artists. Max Ernstdepicts him as the only mobile character in the Dadaists' group portrait Au Rendez-vous des Amis "A Friends' Reunion", , while, in one of Man Ray's photographs, he is shown kneeling to kiss the hand of an androgynousNancy Cunard. The same artist also completed his schematic portrait, which showed a series of circles connected by two perpendicular arrows. In , Swissartist Alberto Giacometti made Tzara the subject of one of his first experiments with lithography.
Maxyand Lajos Tihanyi. As an homage to Tzara the performer, art rockerDavid Bowieadopted his accessories and mannerisms during a number of public appearances. The many polemics which surrounded Tzara in his lifetime left traces after his death, and determine contemporary perceptions of his work. The controversy regarding Tzara's role as a founder of Dada extended into several milieus, and continued long after the writer died.
Richter, who discusses the lengthy conflict between Huelsenbeck and Tzara over the issue of Dada foundation, speaks of the movement as being torn apart by "petty jealosies". In Romania, similar debates often involved the supposed founding role of Urmuz, who wrote his avant-garde texts before World War I, and Tzara's status as a communicator between Romania and the rest of Europe. In , the young and modernist literary critic Lucian Boz evidenced that he partly shared Vinea's perspective on the matter, crediting Tzara and Constantin Brancusi with having, each on his own, invented the avant-garde.
Rumors in the literary community had it that Tzara successfully sabotaged Ionesco's initiative to publish a French edition of Urmuz's texts, allegedly because the public could then question his claim to have initiated the avant-garde experiment in Romania and the world the edition saw print in , two years after Tzara's death. A more radical questioning of Tzara's influence came from Romanian essayist Petre Pandrea. In his personal diary, published long after he and Tzara had died, Pandrea depicted the poet as an opportunist, accusing him of adapting his style to political requirements, of dodging military service during World War I, and of being a "Lumpenproletarian".
Pandrea's text, completed just after Tzara's visit to Romania, claimed that his founding role within the avant-garde was an "illusion [ From the s to , after a period when it ignored or attacked the avant-garde movement, the Romanian communist regime sought to recuperate Tzara, in order to validate its newly-adopted emphasis on nationalisttenets.
In , literary historian Edgar Papu, whose controversial theories were linked to "protochronism", which presumes that Romanians took precedence in various areas of world culture, mentioned Tzara, alongside Urmuz, Ionesco and Isou, as representatives of "Romanian initiatives" and "road openers at a universal level. Henri Matisse 31 December — 3 November was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship.
As a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but principally as a painter, Matisse is one of the best-known artists of the 20th century. Although he was initially labeled as a Fauve wild beast , by the s, he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting.
His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art. He was their first son. He first started to paint in , when his mother had brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he later described it, and decided to become an artist, deeply disappointing his father.
Initially he painted still-lifes and landscapes in the traditional Flemish style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Chardin was one of Matisse's most admired painters;as an art student he made copies of four Chardin paintings in the Louvre. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of Van Gogh who had been a good friend of Russell but was completely unknown at the time. Matisse's style changed completely, and he would later say "Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me. Many of his paintings from to make use of a pointillist technique adopted from Signac.
In , he went to London to study the paintings of J. Turner and then went on a trip to Corsica. With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, Marguerite, born in Marguerite often served as a model for Matisse. Woman with a Hat, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. His first solo exhibition was at Vollard's gallery in , without much success. The paintings of this period are characterized by flat shapes and controlled lines, with expression dominant over detail.
In , Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne. The paintings expressed emotion with wild, often dissonant colors, without regard for the subject's natural colors. Critic Louis Vauxcelles described the work with the phrase "Donatello au milieu des fauves!
His comment was printed on 17 October in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, and passed into popular usage. The pictures gained considerable condemnation, such as "A pot of paint has been flung in the face of the public" from the critic Camille Mauclair, but also some favourable attention. The painting that was singled out for attacks was Matisse's Woman with a Hat, which was bought by Gertrude and Leo Stein: this had a very positive effect on Matisse, who was suffering demoralization from the bad reception of his work.
Apollinaire, commenting about Matisse in an article published in La Falange, said, "We are not here in the presence of an extravagant or an extremist undertaking: Matisse's art is eminently reasonable. His controversial painting Nu bleu was burned in effigy at the Armory Show in Chicago in The decline of the Fauvist movement, after , did nothing to affect the rise of Matisse; many of his finest works were created between and , when he was an active part of the great gathering of artistic talent in Montparnasse, even though he did not quite fit in, with his conservative appearance and strict bourgeois work habits.
Matisse had a long association with the Russian art collector Sergei Shchukin. He created one of his major works La Danse specially for Shchukin as part of a two painting commission, the other painting being Music, The two became life-long friends as well as rivals and are often compared; one key difference between them is that Matisse drew and painted from nature, while Picasso was much more inclined to work from imagination.
The subjects painted most frequently by both artists were women and still lifes, with Matisse more likely to place his figures in fully realized interiors. During the first decade of the 20th century, Americans in Paris Gertrude Stein, her brothers Leo Stein, Michael Stein and Michael's wife Sarah were important collectors and supporters of Matisse's paintings. In addition Gertrude Stein's two American friends from Baltimore , Clarabel and Etta Cone, became major patrons of Matisse and Picasso, collecting hundreds of their paintings.
The Cone collection is now exhibited in the Baltimore Museum of Art. It operated from until Hans Purrmann and Sarah Stein were amongst several of his most loyal students. His work of the decade or so following this relocation shows a relaxation and a softening of his approach. This "return to order" is characteristic of much art of the post-World War I period, and can be compared with the neoclassicism of Picasso and Stravinsky, and the return to traditionalism of Derain.
His orientalist odalisque paintings are characteristic of the period; while popular, some contemporary critics found this work shallow and decorative. After a new vigor and bolder simplification appear in his work. American art collector Albert C. The Foundation owns several dozen other Matisse paintings. He and his wife of 41 years separated in In he was diagnosed with cancer and, following surgery, he started using a wheelchair. Until his death he would be cared for by a Russian woman, Lidia Delektorskaya, formerly one of his models.
His Blue Nudes series feature prime examples of this technique he called "painting with scissors"; they demonstrate the ability to bring his eye for colour and geometry to a new medium of utter simplicity, but with playful and delightful power. In he published Jazz, a limited-edition book containing prints of colorful paper cut collages, accompanied by his written thoughts.
In the s he also worked as a graphic artist and produced black-and-white illustrations for several books and over one hundred original lithographs at the famous Mourlot Studios in Paris. In he finished a four-year project of designing the interior, the glass windows and the decorations of the Chapelle du Rosaire in Vence.
This project was the result of the close friendship between Matisse and Sister Jacques-Marie. He had hired her as a nurse and model in before she became a Dominican Nun and they met again in Vence and started the collaboration, a story related in her book Henri Matisse: La Chapelle de Vence and in the documentary "A Model for Matisse". Matisse died of a heart attack at the age of 84 in A museum dedicated to his work was opened nearby in , just before his death, and is now the third-largest collection of Matisse works in France.
Previously, it had not been seen by the public since Matisse's daughter Marguerite often aided Matisse scholars with insights about his working methods and his works. She died in while compiling a catalog of her father's work. Matisse's son, Pierre Matisse, opened an important modern art gallery in New York City during the s. The Pierre Matisse Gallery which was active from until represented and exhibited many European artists and a few Americans and Canadians in New York often for the first time.
Henri Matisse's grandson, Paul Matisse, is an artist and inventor living in Massachusetts. Matisse's great granddaughter Sophie Matisse is active as an artist in Les Heritiers Matisse functions as his official Estate.
Maurice de Vlaminck 4 April — 11 October was a French painter. Maurice de Vlaminck was born in Paris to a family of musicians. His father taught him to play the violin. He began painting in his late teens. The turning point in his life was a chance meeting on the train to Paris towards the end of his stint in the army. When Vlaminck completed his army service in , the two rented a studio together for a year before Derain left to do his own military service. In and he wrote several mildly pornographic novels illustrated by Derain. He painted during the day and earned his livelihood by giving violin lessons and performing with musical bands at night.
In , Vlaminck traveled to London and painted by the Thames. In , he painted again with Derain in Marseille and Martigues. In World War I he was stationed in Paris, and began writing poetry. Eventually he settled in the northwestern suburbs of Paris. He married his second wife, Berthe Combes, with whom he had two daughters. From he traveled throughout France, but continued to paint primarily along the Seine, near Paris. For the next few years Vlaminck lived in or near Chatou the inspiration for his painting houses at Chatou , painting and exhibiting alongside Derain, Matisse, and other Fauvist painters.
At this time his exuberant paint application and vibrant use of color displayed the influence of Vincent van Gogh.
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Sur le zinc called to mind the work of Toulouse-Lautrec and his portrayals of prostitutes and solitary drinkers, but does not attempt to probe the sitter's psychology—a break with the century-old European tradition of individualized portraiture. According to art critic Souren Melikian, it is "the impersonal cartoon of a type.
He ignored the details, with the landscape becoming a mere excuse to express mood through violent color and brushwork. An example is Sous bois, painted in The following year, he began to experiment with "deconstruction," turning the physical world into dabs and streaks of color that convey a sense of motion.
- Lettre(s) d'information.
- Livre de lectures (essai français) (French Edition).
- Bétail, perles et pièces de monnaie : l’équivalen… – Anthropologie et Sociétés – Érudit.
- Alice and the Assassins (Spanking Menage Fantasies).
Vlaminck's compositions show familiarity with the Impressionists, several of whom had painted in the same area in the s and s. After visiting a van Gogh exhibit, he declared that he "loved van Gogh that day more than my own father". His later work displayed a dark palette, punctuated by heavy strokes of contrasting white paint.
Amedeo Clemente Modigliani July 12, — January 24, was an Italian artist of Jewish heritage, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. Modigliani was born in Livorno historically referred to in English as Leghorn , in northwestern Italy and began his artistic studies in Italy before moving to Paris in He died in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an excessive use of alcohol and narcotics, at the age of Amedeo Modigliani was born into a Jewish family at Livorno, in Tuscany.
Livorno was still a relatively new city, by Italian standards, in the late 19th century. The Livorno that Modigliani knew was a bustling centre of commerce focused upon seafaring and shipwrighting, but its cultural history lay in being a refuge for those persecuted for their religion.
His own maternal great-great-grandfather was one Solomon Garsin, a Jew who had immigrated to Livorno in the eighteenth century as a religious refugee. Modigliani was the fourth child of Flaminio Modigliani and his wife, Eugenia Garsin. His father was in the money-changing business, but when the business went bankrupt, the family lived in dire poverty.
In fact, Amedeo's birth saved the family from certain ruin, as, according to an ancient law, creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a newborn child. When bailiffs entered the family home, just as Eugenia went into labour, the family protected their most valuable assets by piling them on top of the expectant mother. Modigliani had a particularly close relationship with his mother, who taught her son at home until he was ten. Beset with health problems after an attack of pleurisy when he was about eleven, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever.
When he was roughly sixteen he was taken ill with pleurisy again, and it was then that he contracted the tuberculosiswhich was to eventually claim his life. Each time it was his mother Eugenia's intensive care of him which pulled him through. After Modigliani had recovered from the second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern Italy: Naples, Capri, Rome and Amalfi, then back north to Florenceand Venice.
Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself "already a painter", his mother wrote, even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani's passion for the subject. At the age of fourteen, while sick with the typhoid fever, he raved in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence.
As Livorno's local museum only housed a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself, the moment he was recovered.
Not only did she fulfil this promise, but she also undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli. Modigliani worked in Micheli's Art School from to Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an atmosphere deeply steeped in a study of the styles and themes of nineteenth-century Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence, and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen: artists such as Giovanni Boldini figure just as much in this nascent work as do those of Toulouse-Lautrec.
Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and only ceased his studies when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis.
In , whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli, a painter of melodramatic Biblical studies and scenes from great literature. It is ironic that he should be so struck by Morelli, as this painter had served as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who went known by the title "the Macchiaioli" from macchia —"dash of colour", or, more derogatively, "stain" , and Modigliani had already been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli.
This minor, localized art movement was possessed of a need to react against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre painters. While sympathetically connected to and actually pre-dating the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside of Italy. Modigliani's connection with the movement was through Guglielmo Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaiolo himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori, a founder of the movement.
Micheli's work, however, was so fashionable and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with French Impressionism, characterized the movement. While with Micheli, Modigliani not only studied landscape, but also portraiture, still-life, and the nude. His fellow students recall that the latter was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.
Despite his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found favour with his teacher, who referred to him as "Superman", a pet name reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art, but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist's innovations. A year later while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Istituto di Belle Arti.
It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianismthat was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of radical philosophies, such as those of Nietzsche.
Letters that he wrote from his 'sabbatical' in Capri in clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the thinking of Nietzsche. This doomed poet's Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani's generation, and the book became Modigliani's favourite to the extent that he learnt it by heart. Baudelaire and D'Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery.
Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from the tuberculosis. These letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in Modigliani's mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani's senior, and it is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred the company of older companions, and Ghiglia's role in his adolescence was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.
In Modigliani moved to Paris, then the focal point of the avant-garde. In fact, his arrival at the centre of artistic experimentation coincided with the arrival of two other foreigners who were also to leave their marks upon the art world: Gino Severini and Juan Gris. He settled in Le Bateau-Lavoir, a commune for penniless artists in Montmartre, renting himself a studio in Rue Caulaincourt. Even though this artists' quarter of Montmartre was characterized by generalized poverty, Modigliani himself presented—initially, at least—as one would expect the son of a family trying to maintain the appearances of its lost financial standing to present: his wardrobe was dapper without ostentation, and the studio he rented was appointed in a style appropriate to someone with a finely attuned taste in plush drapery and Renaissance reproductions.
He soon made efforts to assume the guise of the bohemian artist, but, even in his brown corduroys, scarlet scarf and large black hat, he continued to appear as if he were slumming it, having fallen upon harder times. He was at that time considered by those who knew him as a bit reserved, verging on the asocial.
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He is noted to have commented, upon meeting Picassowho, at the time, was wearing his trademark workmen's clothes, that even though the man was a genius, that did not excuse his uncouth appearance. Within a year of arriving in Paris, however, his demeanour and reputation had changed dramatically. He transformed himself from a dapper academician artist into a sort of prince of vagabonds. The poet and journalist Louis Latourette, upon visiting the artist's previously well-appointed studio after his transformation, discovered the place in upheaval, the Renaissance reproductions discarded from the walls, the plush drapes in disarray.
Modigliani was already an alcoholic and a drug addict by this time, and his studio reflected this. Modigliani's behaviour at this time sheds some light upon his developing style as an artist, in that the studio had become almost a sacrificial effigy for all that he resented about the academic art that had marked his life and his training up to that point.
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Not only did he remove all the trappings of his bourgeois heritage from his studio, but he also set about destroying practically all of his own early work. He explained this extraordinary course of actions to his astonished neighbours thus:. The motivation for this violent rejection of his earlier self is the subject of considerable speculation. The self-destructive tendencies may have stemmed from his tuberculosis and the knowledge or presumption that the disease had essentially marked him for an early death; within the artists' quarter, many faced the same sentence, and the typical response was to set about enjoying life while it lasted, principally by indulging in self-destructive actions.
For Modigliani such behavior may have been a response to a lack of recognition; he sought the company of artists such as Utrillo and Soutine, seeking acceptance and validation for his work from his colleagues. Modigliani's behavior stood out even in these Bohemiansurroundings: he carried on frequent affairs, drank heavily, and used absinthe and hashish.
While drunk, he would sometimes strip himself naked at social gatherings. He became the epitome of the tragic artist, creating a posthumous legend almost as well-known as that of Vincent van Gogh. While this propaganda served as a rallying cry to those with a romantic longing to be a tragic, doomed artist, these strategies did not produce unique artistic insights or techniques in those who did not already have them.
In fact, art historians suggestthat it is entirely possible for Modigliani to have achieved even greater artistic heights had he not been immured in, and destroyed by, his own self-indulgences. We can only speculate what he might have accomplished had he emerged intact from his self-destructive explorations. During his early years in Paris, Modigliani worked at a furious pace.
He was constantly sketching, making as many as a hundred drawings a day. However, many of his works were lost—destroyed by him as inferior, left behind in his frequent changes of address, or given to girlfriends who did not keep them. Eventually he developed his own unique style, one that cannot be adequately categorized with other artists. He met the first serious love of his life, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova, in , when he was They had studios in the same building, and although year-old Anna was recently married, they began an affair Tall Modigliani was only 5 foot 5 inches with dark hair like Modigliani's , pale skin and grey-green eyes, she embodied Modigliani's aesthetic ideal and the pair became engrossed in each other.
After a year, however, Anna returned to her husband. In , Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studioin Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced him to sculptor Constantin Brancusi. Although a series of Modigliani's sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d'Automne of , by he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his painting, a move precipitated by the difficulty in acquiring sculptural materials due to the outbreak of war, and by Modigliani's physical debilitation.
A possible interest in African tribal masks seems to be evident in his portraits. In both his painting and sculpture, the sitters' faces resemble ancient Egyptianpainting in their flat and mask-like appearance, with distinctive almond eyes, pursed mouths, twisted noses, and elongated necks. At the outset of World War I, Modigliani tried to enlist in the armybut was refused because of his poor health.
Women came and went until Beatrice Hastings entered his life. She stayed with him for almost two years, was the subject for several of his portraits, including Madame Pompadour , and the object of much of his drunken wrath. They became great friends. The chief of the Paris police was scandalized by Modigliani's nudes and forced him to close the exhibition within a few hours after its opening. During a trip to Nice, conceived and organized byLeopold Zborovski, Modigliani, Foujita and other artists tried to sell their works to rich tourists. Modigliani managed to sell a few pictures but only for a few francs each.
Despite this, during this time he produced most of the paintings that later became his most popular and valued works. During his lifetime he sold a number of his works, but never for any great amount of money. What funds he did receive soon vanished for his habits. Although he continued to paint, Modigliani's health was deteriorating rapidly, and his alcohol-induced blackouts became more frequent.
They summoned a doctor, but little could be done because Modigliani was dying of the then-incurable disease tubercular meningitis. Modigliani died on January 24, There was an enormous funeral, attended by many from the artistic communities in Montmartre and Montparnasse. A single tombstone honors them both. His epitaph reads: "Struck down by Death at the moment of glory. Modigliani died penniless and destitute—managing only one solo exhibition in his life and giving his work away in exchange for meals in restaurants. Since his death his reputation has soared.
Nine novels, a play, a documentary and three feature films have been devoted to his life. Modigliani's sister in Florence adopted their month old daughter, Jeanne As an adult, she wrote a biography of her father titled, Modigliani: Man and Myth. Red Nude plays an important part in the film Travels with My Aunt. The slyly winking face of Maggie Smith, complete with bright red hair, seems to have been superimposed onto the original painting. Only 27 sculptures by Modigliani are known to exist.
Paul Jackson Pollock January 28, — August 11, was an influential American painter and a major force in the abstract expressionist movement. He was married to noted abstract painter Lee Krasner. His father was a farmer and later a land surveyor for the government. During his early life, he experienced Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father.
Benton's rural American subject matter shaped Pollock's work only fleetingly, but his rhythmic use of paint and his fierce independence were more lasting influences. Peggy Guggenheim loaned them the down payment for the wood-frame house with a nearby barn that Pollock made into a studio. It was there that he perfected the technique of working spontaneously with liquid paint. Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in , at an experimental workshop operated in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros.
He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques in canvases of the early s, such as "Male and Female" and "Composition with Pouring I. The drip technique required paint with a fluid viscosity so Pollock turned to then new synthetic resin-based paints, called alkyd enamels.
He used hardened brushes, sticks and even basting syringes as paint applicators. Pollock's technique of pouring and dripping paint is thought to be one of the origins of the term action painting. With this technique, Pollock was able to achieve a more immediate means of creating art, the paint now literally flowing from his chosen tool onto the canvas. By defying the conventional way of painting on an upright surface, he added a new dimension, literally, by being able to view and apply paint to his canvases from all directions. In the process of making paintings in this way he moved away from figurative representation, and challenged the Western tradition of using easel and brush, as well as moving away from use only of the hand and wrist; as he used his whole body to paint.
In Time magazine dubbed Pollock "Jack the Dripper" as a result of his unique painting style. Pollock observed Indiansandpaintingdemonstrations in the s. Other influences on his dripping technique include the Mexican muralistsand also Surrealistautomatism.